1. 9.2 Server-sent events
      1. 9.2.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2.2 The EventSource interface
      3. 9.2.3 The event stream format
      4. 9.2.4 Authoring notes

9.2 Server-sent events

Support: eventsourceChrome for Android 81+Chrome 6+iOS Safari 4.0+Safari 5+Firefox 6+Samsung Internet 4+Edge 79+UC Browser for Android 12.12+IE NoneOpera 11+Opera Mini NoneFirefox for Android 68+

Source: caniuse.com

9.2.1 Introduction

To enable servers to push data to Web pages over HTTP or using dedicated server-push protocols, this specification introduces the EventSource interface.

Using this API consists of creating an EventSource object and registering an event listener.

var source = new EventSource('updates.cgi');
source.onmessage = function (event) {

On the server-side, the script ("updates.cgi" in this case) sends messages in the following form, with the text/event-stream MIME type:

data: This is the first message.

data: This is the second message, it
data: has two lines.

data: This is the third message.

Authors can separate events by using different event types. Here is a stream that has two event types, "add" and "remove":

event: add
data: 73857293

event: remove
data: 2153

event: add
data: 113411

The script to handle such a stream would look like this (where addHandler and removeHandler are functions that take one argument, the event):

var source = new EventSource('updates.cgi');
source.addEventListener('add', addHandler, false);
source.addEventListener('remove', removeHandler, false);

The default event type is "message".

Event streams are always decoded as UTF-8. There is no way to specify another character encoding.

Event stream requests can be redirected using HTTP 301 and 307 redirects as with normal HTTP requests. Clients will reconnect if the connection is closed; a client can be told to stop reconnecting using the HTTP 204 No Content response code.

Using this API rather than emulating it using XMLHttpRequest or an iframe allows the user agent to make better use of network resources in cases where the user agent implementer and the network operator are able to coordinate in advance. Amongst other benefits, this can result in significant savings in battery life on portable devices. This is discussed further in the section below on connectionless push.

9.2.2 The EventSource interface

source = new EventSource( url [, { withCredentials: true } ])

Creates a new EventSource object.

url is a string giving the URL that will provide the event stream.

Setting withCredentials to true will set the credentials mode for connection requests to url to "include".

source . close()

Aborts any instances of the fetch algorithm started for this EventSource object, and sets the readyState attribute to CLOSED.

source . url

Returns the URL providing the event stream.

source . withCredentials

Returns true if the credentials mode for connection requests to the URL providing the event stream is set to "include", and false otherwise.

source . readyState

Returns the state of this EventSource object's connection. It can have the values described below.

CONNECTING (numeric value 0)
The connection has not yet been established, or it was closed and the user agent is reconnecting.
OPEN (numeric value 1)
The user agent has an open connection and is dispatching events as it receives them.
CLOSED (numeric value 2)
The connection is not open, and the user agent is not trying to reconnect. Either there was a fatal error or the close() method was invoked.

The following are the event handlers (and their corresponding event handler event types) supported, as event handler IDL attributes, by all objects implementing the EventSource interface:

Event handler Event handler event type
onopen open
onmessage message
onerror error

9.2.3 The event stream format

This event stream format's MIME type is text/event-stream.

The event stream format is as described by the stream production of the following ABNF, the character set for which is Unicode. [ABNF]

stream        = [ bom ] *event
event         = *( comment / field ) end-of-line
comment       = colon *any-char end-of-line
field         = 1*name-char [ colon [ space ] *any-char ] end-of-line
end-of-line   = ( cr lf / cr / lf )

; characters
lf            = %x000A ; U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
cr            = %x000D ; U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR)
space         = %x0020 ; U+0020 SPACE
colon         = %x003A ; U+003A COLON (:)
bom           = %xFEFF ; U+FEFF BYTE ORDER MARK
name-char     = %x0000-0009 / %x000B-000C / %x000E-0039 / %x003B-10FFFF
                ; a scalar value other than U+000A LINE FEED (LF), U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR), or U+003A COLON (:)
any-char      = %x0000-0009 / %x000B-000C / %x000E-10FFFF
                ; a scalar value other than U+000A LINE FEED (LF) or U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR)

Event streams in this format must always be encoded as UTF-8. [ENCODING]

Lines must be separated by either a U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN U+000A LINE FEED (CRLF) character pair, a single U+000A LINE FEED (LF) character, or a single U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR) character.

The following event stream, once followed by a blank line:

data: YHOO
data: +2
data: 10

...would cause an event message with the interface MessageEvent to be dispatched on the EventSource object. The event's data attribute would contain the string "YHOO\n+2\n10" (where "\n" represents a newline).

This could be used as follows:

var stocks = new EventSource("https://stocks.example.com/ticker.php");
stocks.onmessage = function (event) {
  var data = event.data.split('\n');
  updateStocks(data[0], data[1], data[2]);

...where updateStocks() is a function defined as:

function updateStocks(symbol, delta, value) { ... }

...or some such.

The following stream contains four blocks. The first block has just a comment, and will fire nothing. The second block has two fields with names "data" and "id" respectively; an event will be fired for this block, with the data "first event", and will then set the last event ID to "1" so that if the connection died between this block and the next, the server would be sent a `Last-Event-ID` header with the value "1". The third block fires an event with data "second event", and also has an "id" field, this time with no value, which resets the last event ID to the empty string (meaning no `Last-Event-ID` header will now be sent in the event of a reconnection being attempted). Finally, the last block just fires an event with the data " third event" (with a single leading space character). Note that the last still has to end with a blank line, the end of the stream is not enough to trigger the dispatch of the last event.

: test stream

data: first event
id: 1

data:second event

data:  third event

The following stream fires two events:




The first block fires events with the data set to the empty string, as would the last block if it was followed by a blank line. The middle block fires an event with the data set to a single newline character. The last block is discarded because it is not followed by a blank line.

The following stream fires two identical events:


data: test

This is because the space after the colon is ignored if present.

9.2.4 Authoring notes

Legacy proxy servers are known to, in certain cases, drop HTTP connections after a short timeout. To protect against such proxy servers, authors can include a comment line (one starting with a ':' character) every 15 seconds or so.

Authors wishing to relate event source connections to each other or to specific documents previously served might find that relying on IP addresses doesn't work, as individual clients can have multiple IP addresses (due to having multiple proxy servers) and individual IP addresses can have multiple clients (due to sharing a proxy server). It is better to include a unique identifier in the document when it is served and then pass that identifier as part of the URL when the connection is established.

Authors are also cautioned that HTTP chunking can have unexpected negative effects on the reliability of this protocol, in particular if the chunking is done by a different layer unaware of the timing requirements. If this is a problem, chunking can be disabled for serving event streams.

Clients that support HTTP's per-server connection limitation might run into trouble when opening multiple pages from a site if each page has an EventSource to the same domain. Authors can avoid this using the relatively complex mechanism of using unique domain names per connection, or by allowing the user to enable or disable the EventSource functionality on a per-page basis, or by sharing a single EventSource object using a shared worker.