About this specification

This specification is like no other — it has been processed with you, the humble web developer, in mind.

The focus of this specification is readability and ease of access. Unlike the full HTML Standard, this "developer's edition" removes information that only browser vendors need know. It is automatically produced from the full specification by our build tooling, and thus always in sync with the latest developments in HTML.

To read about its conception, construction, and future, read the original press release, and the blog post about its relaunch.

Finally, feel free to contribute on GitHub to make this edition better for everyone!

  1. 8 Web application APIs
    1. 8.1 Scripting
      1. 8.1.1 Introduction
        1. 8.1.1.1 Runtime script errors
        2. 8.1.1.2 Unhandled promise rejections
          1. 8.1.1.2.1 HostPromiseRejectionTracker(promise, operation)
          2. 8.1.1.2.2 The PromiseRejectionEvent interface
        3. 8.1.1.3 HostEnsureCanCompileStrings(callerRealm, calleeRealm)
      2. 8.1.2 Events
        1. 8.1.2.1 Event handlers
        2. 8.1.2.2 Event handlers on elements, Document objects, and Window objects
          1. 8.1.2.2.1 IDL definitions
    2. 8.2 The WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope mixin
    3. 8.3 Base64 utility methods

8 Web application APIs

8.1 Scripting

8.1.1 Introduction

Various mechanisms can cause author-provided executable code to run in the context of a document. These mechanisms include, but are probably not limited to:

8.1.1.1 Runtime script errors

The message attribute must return the value it was initialized to. It represents the error message.

The filename attribute must return the value it was initialized to. It represents the URL of the script in which the error originally occurred.

The lineno attribute must return the value it was initialized to. It represents the line number where the error occurred in the script.

The colno attribute must return the value it was initialized to. It represents the column number where the error occurred in the script.

The error attribute must return the value it was initialized to. Where appropriate, it is set to the object representing the error (e.g., the exception object in the case of an uncaught DOM exception).

8.1.1.2 Unhandled promise rejections

In addition to synchronous runtime script errors, scripts may experience asynchronous promise rejections, tracked via the unhandledrejection and rejectionhandled events.

When the user agent is to notify about rejected promises on a given environment settings object settings object, it must run these steps:

  1. Let list be a copy of settings object's about-to-be-notified rejected promises list.

  2. If list is empty, abort these steps.

  3. Clear settings object's about-to-be-notified rejected promises list.

  4. Queue a task to run the following substep:

    1. For each promise p in list:

      1. If p's [[PromiseIsHandled]] internal slot is true, continue to the next iteration of the loop.

      2. Let notHandled be the result of firing an event named unhandledrejection at settings object's global object, using PromiseRejectionEvent, with the cancelable attribute initialized to true, the promise attribute initialized to p, and the reason attribute initialized to the value of p's [[PromiseResult]] internal slot.

      3. If notHandled is false, then the promise rejection is handled. Otherwise, the promise rejection is not handled.

      4. If p's [[PromiseIsHandled]] internal slot is false, add p to settings object's outstanding rejected promises weak set.

This algorithm results in promise rejections being marked as handled or not handled. These concepts parallel handled and not handled script errors. If a rejection is still not handled after this, then the rejection may be reported to a developer console.

8.1.1.2.1 HostPromiseRejectionTracker(promise, operation)

JavaScript contains an implementation-defined HostPromiseRejectionTracker(promise, operation) abstract operation. User agents must use the following implementation: [JAVASCRIPT]

  1. Let script be the running script.

  2. If script has muted errors, terminate these steps.

  3. Let settings object be script's settings object.

  4. If operation is "reject",

    1. Add promise to settings object's about-to-be-notified rejected promises list.

  5. If operation is "handle",

    1. If settings object's about-to-be-notified rejected promises list contains promise, remove promise from that list and abort these steps.

    2. If settings object's outstanding rejected promises weak set does not contain promise, abort these steps.

    3. Remove promise from settings object's outstanding rejected promises weak set.

    4. Queue a task to fire an event named rejectionhandled at settings object's global object, using PromiseRejectionEvent, with the promise attribute initialized to promise, and the reason attribute initialized to the value of promise's [[PromiseResult]] internal slot.

8.1.1.2.2 The PromiseRejectionEvent interface

The promise attribute must return the value it was initialized to. It represents the promise which this notification is about.

The reason attribute must return the value it was initialized to. It represents the rejection reason for the promise.

8.1.1.3 HostEnsureCanCompileStrings(callerRealm, calleeRealm)

JavaScript contains an implementation-defined HostEnsureCanCompileStrings(callerRealm, calleeRealm) abstract operation. User agents must use the following implementation: [JAVASCRIPT]

  1. Perform ? EnsureCSPDoesNotBlockStringCompilation(callerRealm, calleeRealm). [CSP]

8.1.2 Events

8.1.2.1 Event handlers

Many objects can have event handlers specified. These act as non-capture event listeners for the object on which they are specified. [DOM]

An event handler has a name, which always starts with "on" and is followed by the name of the event for which it is intended.

An event handler has a value, which is either null, or is a callback object. The EventHandler callback function type describes how this is exposed to scripts.

Event handlers are exposed in one of two ways.

The first way, common to all event handlers, is as an event handler IDL attribute.

The second way is as an event handler content attribute. Event handlers on HTML elements and some of the event handlers on Window objects are exposed in this way.

An event handler content attribute is a content attribute for a specific event handler. The name of the content attribute is the same as the name of the event handler.

Event handler content attributes, when specified, must contain valid JavaScript code which, when parsed, would match the FunctionBody production after automatic semicolon insertion.

This example demonstrates the order in which event listeners are invoked. If the button in this example is clicked by the user, the page will show four alerts, with the text "ONE", "TWO", "THREE", and "FOUR" respectively.

<button id="test">Start Demo</button>
<script>
 var button = document.getElementById('test');
 button.addEventListener('click', function () { alert('ONE') }, false);
 button.setAttribute('onclick', "alert('NOT CALLED')"); // event handler listener is registered here
 button.addEventListener('click', function () { alert('THREE') }, false);
 button.onclick = function () { alert('TWO'); };
 button.addEventListener('click', function () { alert('FOUR') }, false);
</script>

The EventHandler callback function type represents a callback used for event handlers.

In JavaScript, any Function object implements this interface.

For example, the following document fragment:

<body onload="alert(this)" onclick="alert(this)">

...leads to an alert saying "[object Window]" when the document is loaded, and an alert saying "[object HTMLBodyElement]" whenever the user clicks something in the page.

The return value of the function affects whether the event is canceled or not: if the return value is false, the event is canceled.

There are two exceptions in the platform, for historical reasons:

For historical reasons, the onerror handler has different arguments:

window.onerror = (message, source, lineno, colno, error) => { … };

Similarly, the onbeforeunload handler has a different return value: it will be cast to a string.

8.1.2.2 Event handlers on elements, Document objects, and Window objects

The following are the event handlers (and their corresponding event handler event types) supported by all HTML elements, as both event handler content attributes and event handler IDL attributes; and supported by all Document and Window objects, as event handler IDL attributes:

Event handler Event handler event type
onabort abort
onauxclick auxclick
oncancel cancel
oncanplay canplay
oncanplaythrough canplaythrough
onchange change
onclick click
onclose close
oncontextmenu contextmenu
oncuechange cuechange
ondblclick dblclick
ondrag drag
ondragend dragend
ondragenter dragenter
ondragexit dragexit
ondragleave dragleave
ondragover dragover
ondragstart dragstart
ondrop drop
ondurationchange durationchange
onemptied emptied
onended ended
oninput input
oninvalid invalid
onkeydown keydown
onkeypress keypress
onkeyup keyup
onloadeddata loadeddata
onloadedmetadata loadedmetadata
onloadend loadend
onloadstart loadstart
onmousedown mousedown
onmouseenter mouseenter
onmouseleave mouseleave
onmousemove mousemove
onmouseout mouseout
onmouseover mouseover
onmouseup mouseup
onwheel wheel
onpause pause
onplay play
onplaying playing
onprogress progress
onratechange ratechange
onreset reset
onsecuritypolicyviolation securitypolicyviolation
onseeked seeked
onseeking seeking
onselect select
onstalled stalled
onsubmit submit
onsuspend suspend
ontimeupdate timeupdate
ontoggle toggle
onvolumechange volumechange
onwaiting waiting

The following are the event handlers (and their corresponding event handler event types) supported by all HTML elements other than body and frameset elements, as both event handler content attributes and event handler IDL attributes; supported by all Document objects, as event handler IDL attributes; and supported by all Window objects, as event handler IDL attributes on the Window objects themselves, and with corresponding event handler content attributes and event handler IDL attributes exposed on all body and frameset elements that are owned by that Window object's associated Document:

Event handler Event handler event type
onblur blur
onerror error
onfocus focus
onload load
onresize resize
onscroll scroll

The following are the event handlers (and their corresponding event handler event types) supported by Window objects, as event handler IDL attributes on the Window objects themselves, and with corresponding event handler content attributes and event handler IDL attributes exposed on all body and frameset elements that are owned by that Window object's associated Document:

Event handler Event handler event type
onafterprint afterprint
onbeforeprint beforeprint
onbeforeunload beforeunload
onhashchange hashchange
onlanguagechange languagechange
onmessage message
onmessageerror messageerror
onoffline offline
ononline online
onpagehide pagehide
onpageshow pageshow
onpopstate popstate
onrejectionhandled rejectionhandled
onstorage storage
onunhandledrejection unhandledrejection
onunload unload

The following are the event handlers (and their corresponding event handler event types) supported by all HTML elements, as both event handler content attributes and event handler IDL attributes; and supported by all Document objects, as event handler IDL attributes:

Event handler Event handler event type
oncut cut
oncopy copy
onpaste paste

The following are the event handlers (and their corresponding event handler event types) supported on Document objects as event handler IDL attributes:

Event handler Event handler event type
onreadystatechange readystatechange
8.1.2.2.1 IDL definitions

8.2 The WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope mixin

The WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope mixin is for use of APIs that are to be exposed on Window and WorkerGlobalScope objects.

Other standards are encouraged to further extend it using partial interface WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope { … }; along with an appropriate reference.

origin = self . origin

Returns the global object's origin, serialized as string.

Developers are strongly encouraged to use self.origin over location.origin. The former returns the origin of the environment, the latter of the URL of the environment. Imagine the following script executing in a document on https://stargate.example/:

var frame = document.createElement("iframe")
frame.onload = function() {
  var frameWin = frame.contentWindow
  console.log(frameWin.location.origin) // "null"
  console.log(frameWin.origin) // "https://stargate.example"
}
document.body.appendChild(frame)

self.origin is a more reliable security indicator.

The origin attribute's getter must return this object's relevant settings object's origin, serialized.

8.3 Base64 utility methods

The atob() and btoa() methods allow developers to transform content to and from the base64 encoding.

In these APIs, for mnemonic purposes, the "b" can be considered to stand for "binary", and the "a" for "ASCII". In practice, though, for primarily historical reasons, both the input and output of these functions are Unicode strings.

result = self . btoa( data )

Takes the input data, in the form of a Unicode string containing only characters in the range U+0000 to U+00FF, each representing a binary byte with values 0x00 to 0xFF respectively, and converts it to its base64 representation, which it returns.

Throws an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException exception if the input string contains any out-of-range characters.

result = self . atob( data )

Takes the input data, in the form of a Unicode string containing base64-encoded binary data, decodes it, and returns a string consisting of characters in the range U+0000 to U+00FF, each representing a binary byte with values 0x00 to 0xFF respectively, corresponding to that binary data.

Throws an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException if the input string is not valid base64 data.