1. 7.2 The Window object
      1. 7.2.1 APIs for creating and navigating browsing contexts by name
      2. 7.2.2 Accessing other browsing contexts
      3. 7.2.3 Named access on the Window object
      4. 7.2.4 Closing browsing contexts
      5. 7.2.5 Browser interface elements

7.2 The Window object

interface Window : EventTarget {
  // the current browsing context
  [Unforgeable] readonly attribute WindowProxy window;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute WindowProxy self;
  [Unforgeable] readonly attribute Document document;
  attribute DOMString name; 
  [PutForwards=href, Unforgeable] readonly attribute Location location;
  readonly attribute History history;
  readonly attribute CustomElementRegistry customElements;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute BarProp locationbar;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute BarProp menubar;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute BarProp personalbar;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute BarProp scrollbars;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute BarProp statusbar;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute BarProp toolbar;
  attribute DOMString status;
  void close();
  readonly attribute boolean closed;
  void stop();
  void focus();
  void blur();

  // other browsing contexts
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute WindowProxy frames;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  [Unforgeable] readonly attribute WindowProxy? top;
  attribute any opener;
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute WindowProxy? parent;
  readonly attribute Element? frameElement;
  WindowProxy? open(optional USVString url = "about:blank", optional DOMString target = "_blank", optional [TreatNullAs=EmptyString] DOMString features = "");
  getter object (DOMString name);
  // Since this is the global object, the IDL named getter adds a NamedPropertiesObject exotic
  // object on the prototype chain. Indeed, this does not make the global object an exotic object.
  // Indexed access is taken care of by the WindowProxy exotic object.

  // the user agent
  readonly attribute Navigator navigator; 
  readonly attribute ApplicationCache applicationCache;

  // user prompts
  void alert();
  void alert(DOMString message);
  boolean confirm(optional DOMString message = "");
  DOMString? prompt(optional DOMString message = "", optional DOMString default = "");
  void print();

  unsigned long requestAnimationFrame(FrameRequestCallback callback);
  void cancelAnimationFrame(unsigned long handle);

  void postMessage(any message, USVString targetOrigin, optional sequence<object> transfer = []);
Window includes GlobalEventHandlers;
Window includes WindowEventHandlers;

callback FrameRequestCallback = void (DOMHighResTimeStamp time);
window . window
window . frames
window . self

These attributes all return window.

window . document

Returns the Document associated with window.

document . defaultView

Returns the Window object of the active document.

7.2.1 APIs for creating and navigating browsing contexts by name

window = window . open( [ url [, target [, features ] ] ] )

Opens a window to show url (defaults to about:blank), and returns it. The target argument gives the name of the new window. If a window exists with that name already, it is reused. The features argument can be used to influence the rendering of the new window.

window . name [ = value ]

Returns the name of the window.

Can be set, to change the name.

window . close()

Closes the window.

window . closed

Returns true if the window has been closed, false otherwise.

window . stop()

Cancels the document load.

7.2.2 Accessing other browsing contexts

window . length

Returns the number of document-tree child browsing contexts.


Returns the indicated document-tree child browsing context.

7.2.3 Named access on the Window object


Returns the indicated element or collection of elements.

As a general rule, relying on this will lead to brittle code. Which IDs end up mapping to this API can vary over time, as new features are added to the Web platform, for example. Instead of this, use document.getElementById() or document.querySelector().

7.2.4 Closing browsing contexts

To close a browsing context browsingContext, run these steps:

  1. Prompt to unload browsingContext's active document. If the user refused to allow the document to be unloaded, then return.

  2. Unload browsingContext's active document.

  3. Remove browsingContext from the user interface (e.g., close or hide its tab in a tabbed browser).

  4. Discard browsingContext.

User agents should offer users the ability to arbitrarily close any top-level browsing context.

7.2.5 Browser interface elements

To allow Web pages to integrate with Web browsers, certain Web browser interface elements are exposed in a limited way to scripts in Web pages.

Each interface element is represented by a BarProp object:

interface BarProp {
  readonly attribute boolean visible;
window . locationbar . visible

Returns true if the location bar is visible; otherwise, returns false.

window . menubar . visible

Returns true if the menu bar is visible; otherwise, returns false.

window . personalbar . visible

Returns true if the personal bar is visible; otherwise, returns false.

window . scrollbars . visible

Returns true if the scroll bars are visible; otherwise, returns false.

window . statusbar . visible

Returns true if the status bar is visible; otherwise, returns false.

window . toolbar . visible

Returns true if the toolbar is visible; otherwise, returns false.