1. Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Tim Berners-Lee for inventing HTML, without which none of this would exist.

Thanks to Aankhen, Aaron Boodman, Aaron Leventhal, Adam Barth, Adam de Boor, Adam Hepton, Adam Klein, Adam Roben, Addison Phillips, Adele Peterson, Adrian Bateman, Adrian Roselli, Adrian Sutton, Agustín Fernández, Aharon (Vladimir) Lanin, Ajai Tirumali, Akatsuki Kitamura, Alan Plum, Alastair Campbell, Alejandro G. Castro, Aleksey Shvayka, Alex Bishop, Alex Nicolaou, Alex Rousskov, Alexander Farkas, Alexander J. Vincent, Alexandre Morgaut, Alexey Feldgendler, Алексей Проскуряков (Alexey Proskuryakov), Alexis Deveria, Ali Juma, Alice Boxhall, Allan Clements, Allen Wirfs-Brock, Alex Komoroske, Alex Russell, Ami Fischman, Amos Jeffries, Anders Carlsson, André E. Veltstra, Andrea Rendine, Andreas, Andreas Kling, Andrei Popescu, Andres Gomez, Andres Rios, Andrew Barfield, Andrew Clover, Andrew Gove, Andrew Grieve, Andrew Oakley, Andrew Sidwell, Andrew Simons, Andrew Smith, Andrew W. Hagen, Andrey V. Lukyanov, Andry Rendy, Andy Earnshaw, Andy Heydon, Andy Palay, Anjana Vakil, Anna Belle Leiserson, Anthony Boyd, Anthony Bryan, Anthony Hickson, Anthony Ramine, Anthony Ricaud, Anton Vayvod, Antti Koivisto, Arkadiusz Michalski, Arne Thomassen, Aron Spohr, Arphen Lin, Arthur Stolyar, Arun Patole, Aryeh Gregor, Asbjørn Ulsberg, Ashley Gullen, Ashley Sheridan, Atsushi Takayama, Aurelien Levy, Ave Wrigley, Avi Drissman, Axel Dahmen, Ben Boyle, Ben Godfrey, Ben Kelly, Ben Lerner, Ben Leslie, Ben Meadowcroft, Ben Millard, Benjamin Carl Wiley Sittler, Benjamin Hawkes-Lewis, Benoit Ren, Bert Bos, Bijan Parsia, Bil Corry, Bill Mason, Bill McCoy, Billy Wong, Bjartur Thorlacius, Björn Höhrmann, Blake Frantz, Bob Lund, Bob Owen, Bobby Holley, Boris Zbarsky, Brad Fults, Brad Neuberg, Brad Spencer, Brady Eidson, Brandon Jones, Brendan Eich, Brenton Simpson, Brett Wilson, Brett Zamir, Brian Blakely, Brian Campbell, Brian Korver, Brian Kuhn, Brian M. Dube, Brian Ryner, Brian Smith, Brian Wilson, Bryan Sullivan, Bruce Bailey, Bruce D'Arcus, Bruce Lawson, Bruce Miller, Bugs Nash, C. Williams, Cameron McCormack, Cameron Zemek, Cao Yipeng, Carlos Amengual, Carlos Gabriel Cardona, Carlos Perelló Marín, Casey Leask, Cătălin Mariș, Chao Cai, 윤석찬 (Channy Yun), Charl van Niekerk, Charlene Wright, Charles Iliya Krempeaux, Charles McCathie Nevile, Charlie Reis, Chris Apers, Chris Cressman, Chris Dumez, Chris Evans, Chris Harrelson, Chris Markiewicz, Chris Morris, Chris Pearce, Chris Peterson, Chris Rebert, Chris Weber, Chris Wilson, Christian Biesinger, Christian Johansen, Christian Schmidt, Christoph Päper, Christophe Dumez, Christopher Aillon, Christopher Ferris, Chriswa, Clark Buehler, Cole Robison, Colin Fine, Collin Jackson, Corey Farwell, Corprew Reed, Craig Cockburn, Csaba Gabor, Csaba Marton, Cynthia Shelly, Dan Yoder, Dane Foster, Daniel Barclay, Daniel Bratell, Daniel Brooks, Daniel Brumbaugh Keeney, Daniel Buchner, Daniel Cheng, Daniel Davis, Daniel Glazman, Daniel Peng, Daniel Schattenkirchner, Daniel Spång, Daniel Steinberg, Daniel Trebbien, Danny Sullivan, Darin Adler, Darin Fisher, Darxus, Dave Camp, Dave Hodder, Dave Lampton, Dave Singer, Dave Townsend, David Baron, David Bloom, David Bruant, David Carlisle, David E. Cleary, David Egan Evans, David Fink, David Flanagan, David Gerard, David Håsäther, David Hyatt, David I. Lehn, David John Burrowes, David Kendal, David Matja, David Remahl, David Resseguie, David Smith, David Vest, David Woolley, David Zbarsky, DeWitt Clinton, Dean Edridge, Dean Edwards, Dean Jackson, Debi Orton, Derek Featherstone, Devarshi Pant, Devdatta, Dimitri Glazkov, Dimitry Golubovsky, Dirk Pranke, Dirk Schulze, Dirkjan Ochtman, Divya Manian, Dmitry Titov, dolphinling, Dominic Cooney, Dominique Hazaël-Massieux, Don Brutzman, Doron Rosenberg, Doug Kramer, Doug Simpkinson, Drew Wilson, Edgar Chen, Edmund Lai, Eduard Pascual, Eduardo Vela, Edward O'Connor, Edward Welbourne, Edward Z. Yang, Ehsan Akhgari, Eira Monstad, Eitan Adler, Eli Friedman, Eli Grey, Eliot Graff, Elisabeth Robson, Elizabeth Castro, Elliott Sprehn, Elliotte Harold, Emilio Cobos, Eric Carlson, Eric Casler, Eric Lawrence, Eric Rescorla, Eric Semling, Erik Arvidsson, Erik Rose, espretto, Evan Jacobs, Evan Martin, Evan Prodromou, Evan Stade, Evert, Evgeny Kapun, Ezequiel Garzón, fantasai, Felix Sanz, Felix Sasaki, Francesco Schwarz, Francis Brosnan Blazquez, Franck 'Shift' Quélain, Frank Barchard, Frank Liberato, Fredrik Söderquist, 鵜飼文敏 (Fumitoshi Ukai), Futomi Hatano, Gavin Carothers, Gavin Kistner, Gareth Rees, Garrett Smith, Geoff Richards, Geoffrey Garen, Geoffrey Sneddon, George Lund, Gianmarco Armellin, Giovanni Campagna, Giuseppe Pascale, Glenn Adams, Glenn Maynard, Graham Klyne, Greg Botten, Greg Houston, Greg Wilkins, Gregg Tavares, Gregory J. Rosmaita, Grey, Guilherme Johansson Tramontina, Gytis Jakutonis, Håkon Wium Lie, Habib Virji, Hajime Morrita, Hallvord Reiar Michaelsen Steen, Hans S. Tømmerhalt, Hans Stimer, Harald Alvestrand, Hayato Ito, Henri Sivonen, Henrik Lied, Henry Mason, Henry Story, Hugh Guiney, Hugh Winkler, Ian Bicking, Ian Clelland, Ian Davis, Ian Fette, Ian Kilpatrick, Ido Green, Ignacio Javier, Igor Oliveira, Ingvar Stepanyan, Iurii Kucherov, Ivan Enderlin, Ivo Emanuel Gonçalves, J. King, Jackson Ray Hamilton, Jacob Davies, Jacques Distler, Jake Archibald, Jake Verbaten, Jakub Łopuszański, Jakub Wilk, James Craig, James Graham, James Greene, James Justin Harrell, James Kozianski, James M Snell, James Perrett, James Robinson, Jamie Lokier, Jan Miksovsky, Janusz Majnert, Jan-Klaas Kollhof, Jared Jacobs, Jason Duell, Jason Kersey, Jason Lustig, Jason Orendorff, Jason White, Jasper Bryant-Greene, Jasper St. Pierre, Jatinder Mann, Jean-Yves Avenard, Jed Hartman, Jeff Balogh, Jeff Cutsinger, Jeff Schiller, Jeff Walden, Jeffrey Yasskin, Jeffrey Zeldman, 胡慧鋒 (Jennifer Braithwaite), Jens Bannmann, Jens Fendler, Jens Lindström, Jens Oliver Meiert, Jer Noble, Jeremey Hustman, Jeremy Keith, Jeremy Orlow, Jeroen van der Meer, Jerry Smith, Jesse Renée Beach, Jessica Jong, Jian Li, Jim Jewett, Jim Ley, Jim Meehan, Jim Michaels, Jirka Kosek, Jjgod Jiang, João Eiras, Jochen Eisinger, Joe Clark, Joe Gregorio, Joel Spolsky, Joel Verhagen, Johan Herland, John Boyer, John Bussjaeger, John Carpenter, John Daggett, John Fallows, John Foliot, John Harding, John Keiser, John Snyders, John Stockton, John-Mark Bell, Johnny Stenback, Jon Coppeard, Jon Ferraiolo, Jon Gibbins, Jon Perlow, Jonas Sicking, Jonathan Cook, Jonathan Neal, Jonathan Rees, Jonathan Watt, Jonathan Worent, Jonny Axelsson, Jordan Tucker, Jorgen Horstink, Joris van der Wel, Jorunn Danielsen Newth, Joseph Kesselman, Joseph Mansfield, Joseph Pecoraro, Josh Aas, Josh Hart, Josh Levenberg, Josh Matthews, Joshua Bell, Joshua Randall, Jukka K. Korpela, Jules Clément-Ripoche, Julian Reschke, Julio Lopez, Jungkee Song, Jürgen Jeka, Justin Lebar, Justin Novosad, Justin Rogers, Justin Schuh, Justin Sinclair, Ka-Sing Chou, Kai Hendry, Kamishetty Sreeja, 呂康豪 (KangHao Lu), Karl Dubost, Karl Tomlinson, Kartikaya Gupta, Kat Graff, Kathy Walton, Keith Yeung, Kelly Ford, Kelly Norton, Kevin Benson, Kevin Gadd, Kevin Cole, Kinuko Yasuda, Koji Ishii, Kornél Pál, Kornel Lesinski, Kris Northfield, Kristof Zelechovski, Krzysztof Maczyński, 黒澤剛志 (Kurosawa Takeshi), Kyle Barnhart, Kyle Hofmann, Kyle Huey, Léonard Bouchet, Léonie Watson, Lachlan Hunt, Larry Masinter, Larry Page, Lars Gunther, Lars Solberg, Laura Carlson, Laura Granka, Laura L. Carlson, Laura Wisewell, Laurens Holst, Lawrence Forooghian, Lee Kowalkowski, Leif Halvard Silli, Leif Kornstaedt, Lenny Domnitser, Leonard Rosenthol, Leons Petrazickis, Lobotom Dysmon, Logan, Loune, Łukasz Pilorz, Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton, Maciej Stachowiak, Magnus Kristiansen, Maik Merten, Majid Valipour, Malcolm Rowe, Manish Goregaokar, Manish Tripathi, Marc Hoyois, Marc-André Choquette, Marco Zehe, Marcus Bointon, Marijn Kruisselbrink, Mark Amery, Mark Birbeck, Mark Davis, Mark Miller, Mark Nottingham, Mark Pilgrim, Mark Rowe, Mark Schenk, Mark Vickers, Mark Wilton-Jones, Markus Stange, Martijn Wargers, Martin Atkins, Martin Chaov, Martin Dürst, Martin Honnen, Martin Janecke, Martin Kutschker, Martin Nilsson, Martin Thomson, Masataka Yakura, Masatoshi Kimura, Mason Mize, Mathias Bynens, Mathieu Henri, Matias Larsson, Matt Brubeck, Matt Di Pasquale, Matt Falkenhagen, Matt Schmidt, Matt Wright, Matthew Gregan, Matthew Mastracci, Matthew Noorenberghe, Matthew Raymond, Matthew Thomas, Mattias Waldau, Max Romantschuk, Menachem Salomon, Menno van Slooten, Micah Dubinko, Michael 'Ratt' Iannarelli, Michael A. Nachbaur, Michael A. Puls II, Michael Carter, Michael Daskalov, Michael Day, Michael Dyck, Michael Enright, Michael Gratton, Michael Kohler, Michael McKelvey, Michael Nordman, Michael Powers, Michael Rakowski, Michael(tm) Smith, Michael Walmsley, Michal Zalewski, Michel Fortin, Michelangelo De Simone, Michiel van der Blonk, Mihai Şucan, Mihai Parparita, Mike Brown, Mike Dierken, Mike Dixon, Mike Hearn, Mike Schinkel, Mike Shaver, Mikko Rantalainen, Mohamed Zergaoui, Mohammad Al Houssami, Momdo Nakamura, Mounir Lamouri, Ms2ger, Nadia Heninger, NARUSE Yui, Neil Deakin, Neil Rashbrook, Neil Soiffer, Nicholas Shanks, Nicholas Stimpson, Nicholas Zakas, Nickolay Ponomarev, Nicolas Gallagher, Nikki Bee, Noah Mendelsohn, Noah Slater, Noel Gordon, Nolan Waite, NoozNooz42, Norbert Lindenberg, Ojan Vafai, Olaf Hoffmann, Olav Junker Kjær, Oldřich Vetešník, Oli Studholme, Oliver Hunt, Oliver Rigby, Olivier Gendrin, Olli Pettay, oSand, Pablo Flouret, Patrick Garies, Patrick H. Lauke, Patrik Persson, Paul Adenot, Paul Lewis, Paul Norman, Per-Erik Brodin, Perry Smith, Peter Beverloo, Peter Karlsson, Peter Kasting, Peter Moulder, Peter Occil, Peter Stark, Peter Van der Beken, Peter van der Zee, Peter-Paul Koch, Phil Pickering, Philip Taylor, Philip TAYLOR, Philippe De Ryck, Pooja Sanklecha, Prashant Hiremath, Prateek Rungta, Pravir Gupta, Prayag Verma, 李普君 (Pujun Li), Rachid Finge, Rafael Weinstein, Rafał Miłecki, Raj Doshi, Rajas Moonka, Ralf Stoltze, Ralph Giles, Raphael Champeimont, Rebecca Star, Remci Mizkur, Remco, Remy Sharp, Rene Saarsoo, Rene Stach, Ric Hardacre, Rich Clark, Rich Doughty, Richa Rupela, Richard Ishida, Rigo Wenning, Rikkert Koppes, Rimantas Liubertas, Riona Macnamara, Rob Ennals, Rob Jellinghaus, Rob S, Robert Blaut, Robert Collins, Robert Kieffer, Robert Millan, Robert O'Callahan, Robert Sayre, Robin Berjon, Robin Schaufler, Rodger Combs, Roland Steiner, Roma Matusevich, Roman Ivanov, Roy Fielding, Ruud Steltenpool, Ryan King, Ryosuke Niwa, S. Mike Dierken, Salvatore Loreto, Sam Dutton, Sam Kuper, Sam Ruby, Sam Weinig, Samuel Bronson, Samy Kamkar, Sander van Lambalgen, Sanjoy Pal, Sarven Capadisli, Scott Beardsley, Scott González, Scott Hess, Scott Miles, Sean Fraser, Sean Hayes, Sean Hogan, Sean Knapp, Sebastian Markbåge, Sebastian Schnitzenbaumer, Seth Call, Seth Dillingham, Shannon Moeller, Shanti Rao, Shaun Inman, Shiino Yuki, Shiki Okasaka, Shubheksha Jalan, Sierk Bornemann, Sigbjørn Finne, Sigbjørn Vik, Silver Ghost, Silvia Pfeiffer, Šime Vidas, Simon Montagu, Simon Sapin, Simon Spiegel, skeww, Smylers, Srirama Chandra Sekhar Mogali, Stanton McCandlish, Stefan Håkansson, Stefan Haustein, Stefan Santesson, Stefan Weiss, Steffen Meschkat, Stephen Ma, Stephen White, Steve Comstock, Steve Faulkner, Steve Orvell, Steve Runyon, Steven Bennett, Steven Garrity, Steven Tate, Stewart Brodie, Stuart Ballard, Stuart Langridge, Stuart Parmenter, Subramanian Peruvemba, Sunava Dutta, Susan Borgrink, Susan Lesch, Sylvain Pasche, T. J. Crowder, Tab Atkins-Bittner, Taiju Tsuiki, Takayoshi Kochi, Takeshi Yoshino, Tantek Çelik, 田村健人 (TAMURA Kent), Taylor Hunt, Ted Mielczarek, Terrence Wood, Tetsuharu OHZEKI, Thijs van der Vossen, Thomas Broyer, Thomas Koetter, Thomas O'Connor, Tim Altman, Tim Johansson, Tim Perry, TJ VanToll, Tobias Schneider, Toby Inkster, Todd Moody, Tom Baker, Tom Pike, Tom Schuster, Tommy Thorsen, Tony Ross, Tooru Fujisawa, Travis Leithead, Trevor Saunders, triple-underscore, Tyler Close, Valentin Gosu, Veli Şenol, Victor Carbune, Vipul Snehadeep Chawathe, Vitya Muhachev, Vladimir Katardjiev, Vladimir Vukićević, Vyacheslav Aristov, voracity, Wakaba, Wayne Carr, Wayne Pollock, Wellington Fernando de Macedo, Weston Ruter, Wilhelm Joys Andersen, Will Levine, Will Ray, William Chen, William Swanson, Wladimir Palant, Wojciech Mach, Wolfram Kriesing, Xan Gregg, xenotheme, Xida Chen, Xidorn Quan, Yang Chen, Ye-Kui Wang, Yehuda Katz, Yi-An Huang, Yngve Nysaeter Pettersen, Yoav Weiss, Yonathan Randolph, Yuzo Fujishima, Zhenbin Xu, 张智强 (Zhiqiang Zhang), Zoltan Herczeg, and Øistein E. Andersen, for their useful comments, both large and small, that have led to changes to this specification over the years.

Thanks also to everyone who has ever posted about HTML to their blogs, public mailing lists, or forums, including all the contributors to the various W3C HTML WG lists and the various WHATWG lists.

Special thanks to Richard Williamson for creating the first implementation of canvas in Safari, from which the canvas feature was designed.

Special thanks also to the Microsoft employees who first implemented the event-based drag-and-drop mechanism, contenteditable, and other features first widely deployed by the Windows Internet Explorer browser.

Special thanks and $10,000 to David Hyatt who came up with a broken implementation of the adoption agency algorithm that the editor had to reverse engineer and fix before using it in the parsing section.

Thanks to the participants of the microdata usability study for allowing us to use their mistakes as a guide for designing the microdata feature.

Thanks to the many sources that provided inspiration for the examples used in the specification.

Thanks also to the Microsoft blogging community for some ideas, to the attendees of the W3C Workshop on Web Applications and Compound Documents for inspiration, to the #mrt crew, the #mrt.no crew, and the #whatwg crew, and to Pillar and Hedral for their ideas and support.

Thanks to Igor Zhbanov for generating PDF versions of the specification.

Special thanks to the RICG for developing the picture element and related features; in particular thanks to Adrian Bateman, Bruce Lawson, David Newton, Edward O'Connor, Ilya Grigorik, John Schoenick, Leon de Rijke, Mat Marquis, Marcos Cáceres, Tab Atkins, and Yoav Weiss for their contributions.

Special thanks to the WPWG for incubating the custom elements feature. In particular, thanks to David Hyatt and Ian Hickson for their influence through the XBL specifications, Dimitri Glazkov for the first draft of the custom elements specification, and to Alex Komoroske, Alex Russell, Andres Rios, Boris Zbarsky, Daniel Buchner, Dominic Cooney, Edward O'Connor, Erik Arvidsson, Elliott Sprehn, Hajime Morrita, Hayato Ito, Jan Miksovsky, Jonas Sicking, Olli Pettay, Rafael Weinstein, Roland Steiner, Ryosuke Niwa, Scott Miles, Steve Faulkner, Steve Orvell, Tab Atkins, Tim Perry, and William Chen for their contributions.

Part of the revision history of the picture element and related features can be found in the ResponsiveImagesCG/picture-element repository.

Part of the revision history of the theme-color metadata name can be found in the whatwg/meta-theme-color repository.

Part of the revision history of the custom elements feature can be found in the w3c/webcomponents repository, which is available under the W3C Permissive Document License.

For about ten years starting in 2003, this specification was almost entirely written by Ian Hickson (Google, ian@hixie.ch). More recently, Simon Pieters (Opera, simonp@opera.com), Anne van Kesteren (Mozilla, annevk@annevk.nl), Philip Jägenstedt (Google, philip@foolip.org), and Domenic Denicola (Google, d@domenic.me), all previously long-time contributors, have joined Ian in editing the text directly.

The image in the introduction is based on a photo by Wonderlane. (CC BY 2.0)

The image of the wolf in the embedded content introduction is based on a photo by Barry O'Neill. (Public domain)

The image of the kettlebell swing in the embedded content introduction is based on a photo by kokkarina. (CC0 1.0)

The image of two cute kittens in a basket used in the context menu example is based on a photo by Alex G. (CC BY 2.0)

The Blue Robot Player sprite used in the canvas demo is based on a work by JohnColburn. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

The photograph of robot 148 climbing the tower at the FIRST Robotics Competition 2013 Silicon Valley Regional is based on a work by Lenore Edman. (CC BY 2.0)

The diagram showing how async and defer impact script loading is based on a similar diagram from a blog post by Peter Beverloo. (CC0 1.0)

The image decoding demo used to demonstrate module-based workers draws on some example code from a tutorial by Ilmari Heikkinen. (CC BY 3.0)

The <flag-icon> example was inspired by a custom element by Steven Skelton. (MIT)

Parts of this specification are © Copyright 2004-2014 Apple Inc., Mozilla Foundation, and Opera Software ASA. You are granted a license to use, reproduce and create derivative works of this document.