1. References


All references are normative unless marked "Non-normative".

Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF, D. Crocker, P. Overell. IETF.
The 'about' URI scheme, S. Moonesamy. IETF.
(Non-normative) APNG Specification. S. Parmenter, V. Vukicevic, A. Smith. Mozilla.
Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA), J. Diggs, J. Nurthen, M. Cooper. W3C.
ARIA in HTML, S. Faulkner, S. O'Hara. W3C.
(Non-normative) Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0, J. Richards, J. Spellman, J. Treviranus. W3C.
(Non-normative) The Atom Syndication Format, M. Nottingham, R. Sayre. IETF.
(Non-normative) Battery Status API, A. Kostiainen, M. Lamouri. W3C.
Tags for Identifying Languages; Matching of Language Tags, A. Phillips, M. Davis. IETF.
Courbes à poles, P. de Casteljau. INPI, 1959.
UAX #9: Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm, M. Davis. Unicode Consortium.
(Non-normative) UTN #6: BOCU-1: MIME-Compatible Unicode Compression, M. Scherer, M. Davis. Unicode Consortium.
(Non-normative) UTR #26: Compatibility Encoding Scheme For UTF-16: 8-BIT (CESU-8), T. Phipps. Unicode Consortium.
(Non-normative) Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals, M. Dürst, F. Yergeau, R. Ishida, M. Wolf, T. Texin. W3C.
(Non-normative) Character Model for the World Wide Web: String Matching, A. Phillips. W3C.
Clipboard API and events, G. Kacmarcik, A. Snigdha. W3C.
Compositing and Blending, R. Cabanier, N. Andronikos. W3C.
(Non-normative) On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, A. Turing. In Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, series 2, volume 42, pages 230-265. London Mathematical Society, 1937.
(Non-normative) Compute Pressure, K. Christiansen, A. Mandy. W3C.
Console, T. Stock, R. Kowalski, D. Farolino. WHATWG.
HTTP State Management Mechanism, A. Barth. IETF.
Credential Management, N. Satragno, J. Hodges, M. West. W3C.
Content Security Policy, M. West, D. Veditz. W3C.
Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 2, B. Bos, T. Çelik, I. Hickson, H. Lie. W3C.
CSS Box Alignment, E. Etemad, T. Atkins. W3C.
CSS Animations, D. Jackson, D. Hyatt, C. Marrin, S. Galineau, L. Baron. W3C.
CSS Style Attributes, T. Çelik, E. Etemad. W3C.
CSS Backgrounds and Borders, B. Bos, E. Etemad, B. Kemper. W3C.
CSS Box Model, E. Etemad. W3C.
CSS Cascading and Inheritance, E. Etemad, T. Atkins. W3C.
CSS Containment, T. Atkins, F. Rivoal, V. Levin. W3C.
CSS Color Module, T. Çelik, C. Lilley, L. Baron. W3C.
CSS Color Adjustment Module, E. Etemad, R. Atanassov, R. Lillesveen, T. Atkins. W3C.
CSS Device Adaption, F. Rivoal, M. Rakow. W3C.
CSS Display, T. Atkins, E. Etemad. W3C.
CSS Font Loading, T. Atkins, J. Daggett. W3C.
CSS Fonts, J. Daggett. W3C.
CSS Flexible Box Layout, T. Atkins, E. Etemad, R. Atanassov. W3C.
CSS Generated Content, H. Lie, E. Etemad, I. Hickson. W3C.
CSS Grid Layout, T. Atkins, E. Etemad, R. Atanassov. W3C.
CSS Images Module, E. Etemad, T. Atkins, L. Verou. W3C.
CSS Images Module Level 4, E. Etemad, T. Atkins, L. Verou. W3C.
CSS Inline Layout, D. Cramer, E. Etemad. W3C.
CSS Lists and Counters, T. Atkins. W3C.
CSS Logical Properties, R. Atanassov, E. Etemad. W3C.
CSS Multi-column Layout, H. Lie, F. Rivoal, R. Andrew. W3C.
Cascading Style Sheets Object Model (CSSOM), S. Pieters, G. Adams. W3C.
CSSOM View Module, S. Pieters, G. Adams. W3C.
CSS Overflow Module, L. Baron, F. Rivoal. W3C.
(Non-normative) CSS Painting API, I. Kilpatrick, D. Jackson. W3C.
CSS Positioned Layout, R. Atanassov, A. Eicholz. W3C.
CSS Pseudo-Elements, D. Glazman, E. Etemad, A. Stearns. W3C.
CSS3 Ruby Module, R. Ishida. W3C.
CSS Scoping Module, T. Atkins. W3C.
CSS Box Sizing Module, T. Atkins, E. Etemad. W3C.
(Non-normative) CSS Scroll Anchoring, T. Atkins-Bittner. W3C.
CSS Syntax, T. Atkins, S. Sapin. W3C.
(Non-normative) CSS Transitions, L. Baron, D. Jackson, B. Birtles. W3C.
CSS Table, F. Remy, G. Whitworth. W3C.
CSS Text, E. Etemad, K. Ishii. W3C.
CSS3 Values and Units, H. Lie, T. Atkins, E. Etemad. W3C.
CSS View Transitions, T. Atkins Jr.; J. Archibald; K Sagar. W3C.
CSS3 Basic User Interface Module, F. Rivoal. W3C.
CSS Writing Modes, E. Etemad, K. Ishii. W3C.
Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH). ISO.
(Non-normative) Device Posture API, D. Gonzalez-Zuniga, K. Christiansen. W3C.
DOM, A. van Kesteren, A. Gregor, Ms2ger. WHATWG.
DOM Parsing and Serialization, T. Leithead. W3C.
(Non-normative) The DOT Language. Graphviz.
Recommendation E.163 — Numbering Plan for The International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle II.2, pp. 128-134, November 1988.
Encoding, A. van Kesteren, J. Bell. WHATWG.
execCommand, J. Wilm, A. Gregor. W3C Editing APIs CG.
(Non-normative) Exchangeable image file format. JEITA.
Fetch, A. van Kesteren. WHATWG.
File API, A. Ranganathan. W3C.
Filter Effects, D. Schulze, D. Jackson, C. Harrelson. W3C.
Fullscreen, A. van Kesteren, T. Çelik. WHATWG.
Geometry Interfaces. S. Pieters, D. Schulze, R. Cabanier. W3C.
(Non-normative) Graphics Interchange Format. CompuServe.
(Non-normative) Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice in C, Second Edition, J. Foley, A. van Dam, S. Feiner, J. Hughes. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-84840-6.
(Non-normative) Inter Gravissimas, A. Lilius, C. Clavius. Gregory XIII Papal Bull, February 1582.
High Resolution Time, I. Grigorik, J. Simonsen, J. Mann. W3C.
HTML Accessibility API Mappings 1.0, S. Faulkner, A. Surkov, S. O'Hara. W3C.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing, R. Fielding, J. Reschke. IETF.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content, R. Fielding, J. Reschke. IETF.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests, R. Fielding, J. Reschke. IETF.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests, R. Fielding, Y. Lafon, J. Reschke. IETF.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching, R. Fielding, M. Nottingham, J. Reschke. IETF.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication, R. Fielding, J. Reschke. IETF.
Indexed Database API, A. Alabbas, J. Bell. W3C.
Sourcing In-band Media Resource Tracks from Media Containers into HTML, S. Pfeiffer, B. Lund. W3C.
Infra, A. van Kesteren, D. Denicola. WHATWG.
Intersection Observer, S. Zager. W3C.
Resize Observer, O. Brufau, E. Álvarez. W3C.
ISO 3166: Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. ISO.
ISO 4217: Codes for the representation of currencies and funds. ISO.
(Non-normative) ISO8601: Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times. ISO.
ECMAScript Language Specification. Ecma International.
Requirements for Japanese Text Layout. W3C.
JPEG File Interchange Format, E. Hamilton.
(Non-normative) Error Stacks. Ecma International.
Dynamic code brand checks. Ecma International.
Import attributes. Ecma International.
JSON Modules. Ecma International.
Resizable ArrayBuffer and growable SharedArrayBuffer. Ecma International.
ECMAScript Internationalization API Specification. Ecma International.
The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format, T. Bray. IETF.
Temporal. Ecma International.
Long Tasks, D. Denicola, I. Grigorik, S. Panicker. W3C.
Long Animation Frames, N. Rosenthal. W3C.
(Non-normative) The 'mailto' URI scheme, M. Duerst, L. Masinter, J. Zawinski. IETF.
Web App Manifest, M. Caceres, K. Rohde Christiansen, M. Lamouri, A. Kostiainen, M. Giuca, A. Gustafson. W3C.
Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), D. Carlisle, Frédéric Wang. W3C.
Media Fragments URI, R. Troncy, E. Mannens, S. Pfeiffer, D. Van Deursen. W3C.
Media Source Extensions, A. Colwell, A. Bateman, M. Watson. W3C.
Media Capture and Streams, D. Burnett, A. Bergkvist, C. Jennings, A. Narayanan. W3C.
Reporting, D. Creager, I. Clelland, M. West. W3C.
Microformats Wiki: existing rel values. Microformats.
MIME Sniffing, G. Hemsley. WHATWG.
Mixed Content, M. West. W3C.
MNG (Multiple-image Network Graphics) Format. G. Randers-Pehrson.
ISO/IEC 13818-1: Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems. ISO/IEC.
ISO/IEC 14496-12: ISO base media file format. ISO/IEC.
Media Queries, H. Lie, T. Çelik, D. Glazman, A. van Kesteren. W3C.
(Non-normative) Multiple buffering. Wikipedia.
Navigation Timing, Y. Weiss. W3C.
(Non-normative) Gecko Plugin API Reference. Mozilla.
SkeletonHeaders. Xiph.Org.
Autodiscovery in HTML/XHTML. In OpenSearch 1.1 Draft 6. GitHub.
(Non-normative) The Web Origin Concept, A. Barth. IETF.
Paint Timing, S. Panicker. W3C.
Payment Request API, M. Cáceres, D. Wang, R. Solomakhin, I. Jacobs. W3C.
(Non-normative) Document management — Portable document format — Part 1: PDF. ISO.
Performance Timeline, N. Peña Moreno, W3C.
Permissions Policy, I. Clelland, W3C.
(Non-normative) Picture-in-Picture, F. Beaufort, M. Lamouri, W3C
Pingback 1.0, S. Langridge, I. Hickson.
Portable Network Graphics (PNG) Specification, D. Duce. W3C.
Pointer Events, J. Rossi, M. Brubeck, R. Byers, P. H. Lauke. W3C.
Pointer Lock, V. Scheib. W3C.
(Non-normative) The Properties and Promises of UTF-8, M. Dürst. University of Zürich. In Proceedings of the 11th International Unicode Conference.
Presentation API, M. Foltz, D. Röttsches. W3C.
Referrer Policy, J. Eisinger, E. Stark. W3C.
Cooperative Scheduling of Background Tasks, R. McIlroy, I. Grigorik. W3C.
Resource Timing, Yoav Weiss; Noam Rosenthal. W3C.
Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities, P. Mockapetris. IETF, November 1987.
Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support, R. Braden. IETF, October 1989.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types, N. Freed, N. Borenstein. IETF.
The "data" URL scheme, L. Masinter. IETF.
Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification (iCalendar), B. Desruisseaux. IETF.
URI Resolution Services Necessary for URN Resolution, M. Mealling, R. Daniel. IETF.
The Text/Plain Format and DelSp Parameters, R. Gellens. IETF.
Updates to ECMAScript Media Types, M. Miller, M. Borins, M. Bynens, B. Farias. IETF.
(Non-normative) MIME Type Registration for MPEG-4, Y. Lim, D. Singer. IETF.
Guidelines and Registration Procedures for URI Schemes, D. Thaler, T. Hansen, T. Hardie. IETF.
Internet Message Format, P. Resnick. IETF.
The 'Codecs' and 'Profiles' Parameters for "Bucket" Media Types, R. Gellens, D. Singer, P. Frojdh. IETF.
Use of the Content-Disposition Header Field in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), J. Reschke. IETF.
vCard Format Specification, S. Perreault. IETF.
The Canonical Link Relation, M. Ohye, J. Kupke. IETF.
Additional Link Relation Types, J. Snell. IETF.
(Non-normative) HTTP Header Field X-Frame-Options, D. Ross, T. Gondrom. IETF.
XML Media Types, H. Thompson, C. Lilley. IETF.
Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data, L. Masinter. IETF.
An HTTP Status Code for Indicating Hints, K. Oku. IETF.
Screen Orientation, M. Cáceres. W3C.
(Non-normative) UTR #6: A Standard Compression Scheme For Unicode, M. Wolf, K. Whistler, C. Wicksteed, M. Davis, A. Freytag, M. Scherer. Unicode Consortium.
Secure Contexts, M. West. W3C.
Selection API, R. Niwa. W3C.
Selectors, E. Etemad, T. Çelik, D. Glazman, I. Hickson, P. Linss, J. Williams. W3C.
(Non-normative) URI Scheme for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Short Message Service (SMS), E. Wilde, A. Vaha-Sipila. IETF.
Structured Field Values for HTTP, M. Nottingham, P-H. Kamp. IETF.
Subresource Integrity, D. Akhawe, F. Braun, F. Marier, J. Weinberger. W3C.
Storage, A. van Kesteren. WHATWG.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 2, N Andronikos, R. Atanassov, T. Bah, B. Birtles, B. Brinza, C. Concolato, E. Dahlström, C. Lilley, C. McCormack, D. Schepers, R. Schwerdtfeger, D. Storey, S. Takagi, J. Watt. W3C.
Service Workers, A. Russell, J. Song, J. Archibald. W3C.
(Non-normative) Tor.
Touch Events, D. Schepers, S. Moon, M. Brubeck, A. Barstow, R. Byers. W3C.
Trusted Types, K. Kotowicz, M. West. W3C.
(Non-normative) Time Zone Database. IANA.
(Non-normative) User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0, J. Allan, K. Ford, J. Richards, J. Spellman. W3C.
UI Events Specification, G. Kacmarcik, T. Leithead. W3C.
The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium.
(Non-normative) A composite approach to language/encoding detection, S. Li, K. Momoi. Netscape. In Proceedings of the 19th International Unicode Conference.
URL, A. van Kesteren. WHATWG.
URN Syntax, R. Moats. IETF.
(Non-normative) UTF-7: A Mail-Safe Transformation Format of Unicode, D. Goldsmith, M. Davis. IETF.
(Non-normative) Multilingual form encoding, M. Dürst. W3C.
(Non-normative) UTR #36: Unicode Security Considerations, M. Davis, M. Suignard. Unicode Consortium.
(Non-normative) WebAssembly JavaScript Interface, D. Ehrenberg. W3C.
(Non-normative) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), A. Kirkpatrick, J. O Connor, A. Campbell, M. Cooper. W3C.
Web Animations, B. Birtles, S. Stephens, D. Stockwell. W3C.
(Non-normative) Web Audio API, P. Adenot, H. Choi. W3C.
Web Authentication: An API for accessing Public Key Credentials, M. Jones, A. Kumar, E. Lundberg, D. Balfanz, V. Bharadwaj, A. Birgisson, A. Czeskis, J. Hodges, J.C. Jones, H. Le Van Gong, A. Liao, R. Lindemann, J. Bradley, C. Brand, T. Cappalli, A. Langley, G. Mandyam, M. Miller, N. Satragno, N. Steele, J. Tan, S. Weeden, M. West, J. Yasskin. W3C.
WebCodecs API, C. Cunningham, P. Adenot, B. Aboba. W3C.
Web Cryptography API, D. Huigens. W3C.
WebDriver, S. Stewart, D. Burns. W3C.
WebDriver BiDi. W3C
WebGL Specifications, D. Jackson, J. Gilbert. Khronos Group.
WebGPU, D. Malyshau, K. Ninomiya. W3C.
Web IDL, E. Chen, T. Gu. WHATWG.
Web Linking, M. Nottingham. IETF.
(Non-normative) Web Locks API, J. Bell, K. Rosylight. W3C.
WebM Container Guidelines. The WebM Project.
(Non-normative) Web NFC, F. Beaufort, K. Christiansen, Z. Kis. W3C.
(Non-normative) Web RTC, C. Jennings, F. Castelli, H. Boström, J. Bruaroey. W3C.
WebSockets, A. Rice. WHATWG.
WebTransport, B. Aboba, N. Jaju, V. Vasiliev. W3C.
WebVTT, S. Pieters. W3C.
Recommendation X.121 — International Numbering Plan for Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3, pp. 317-332.
XFN 1.1 profile, T. Çelik, M. Mullenweg, E. Meyer. GMPG.
XMLHttpRequest, A. van Kesteren. WHATWG.
(Non-normative) Substitutions, Randall Munroe. xkcd.
Extensible Markup Language, T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. Sperberg-McQueen, E. Maler, F. Yergeau. W3C.
(Non-normative) XML Entity Definitions for Characters, D. Carlisle, P. Ion. W3C.
Namespaces in XML, T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, R. Tobin. W3C.
Associating Style Sheets with XML documents, J. Clark, S. Pieters, H. Thompson. W3C.
XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0, J. Clark, S. DeRose. W3C.
(Non-normative) XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0, J. Clark. W3C.
(Non-normative) DOM XSLTProcessor, WHATWG Wiki. WHATWG.