1. 6 User interaction
    1. 6.1 The hidden attribute
    2. 6.2 Page visibility
    3. 6.3 Inert subtrees
      1. 6.3.1 Modal dialogs and inert subtrees
      2. 6.3.2 The inert attribute
    4. 6.4 Tracking user activation
      1. 6.4.1 The UserActivation interface
    5. 6.5 Activation behavior of elements
    6. 6.6 Focus
      1. 6.6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.6.2 Data model
      3. 6.6.3 The tabindex attribute
      4. 6.6.4 Focus management APIs
      5. 6.6.5 The autofocus attribute
    7. 6.7 Assigning keyboard shortcuts
      1. 6.7.1 Introduction
      2. 6.7.2 The accesskey attribute
    8. 6.8 Editing
      1. 6.8.1 Making document regions editable: The contenteditable content attribute
      2. 6.8.2 Making entire documents editable: the designMode getter and setter
      3. 6.8.3 Best practices for in-page editors
      4. 6.8.4 Spelling and grammar checking
      5. 6.8.5 Autocapitalization
      6. 6.8.6 Input modalities: the inputmode attribute
      7. 6.8.7 Input modalities: the enterkeyhint attribute
    9. 6.9 Find-in-page
      1. 6.9.1 Introduction
      2. 6.9.2 Interaction with details and hidden=until-found
      3. 6.9.3 Interaction with selection

6 User interaction

6.1 The hidden attribute

Global_attributes/hidden

Support in one engine only.

FirefoxNoSafariNoChrome102+
OperaNoEdge102+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

Global_attributes/hidden

Support in all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
Opera?EdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet Explorer11
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android4+Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

All HTML elements may have the hidden content attribute set. The hidden attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the states for this attribute:

State Keywords
Until found state until-found
Hidden state The empty string
hidden

The attribute may be omitted. The invalid value default is the hidden state. The missing value default is the not hidden state.

When an element has the hidden attribute in the hidden state, it indicates that the element is not yet, or is no longer, directly relevant to the page's current state, or that it is being used to declare content to be reused by other parts of the page as opposed to being directly accessed by the user. User agents should not render elements that are in the hidden state. This requirement may be implemented indirectly through the style layer. For example, a web browser could implement these requirements using the rules suggested in the Rendering section.

When an element has the hidden attribute in the hidden until found state, it indicates that the element is hidden like the hidden state but the content inside the element will be accessible to find-in-page and fragment navigation. When these features attempt to scroll to a target which is in the element's subtree, the user agent will remove the hidden attribute in order to reveal the content before scrolling to it. In addition to removing the hidden attribute, an event named beforematch is also fired on the element before the hidden attribute is removed.

Web browsers will use 'content-visibility: hidden' instead of 'display: none' when the hidden attribute is in the hidden until found state, as specified in the Rendering section.

Because this attribute is typically implemented using CSS, it's also possible to override it using CSS. For instance, a rule that applies 'display: block' to all elements will cancel the effects of the hidden state. Authors therefore have to take care when writing their style sheets to make sure that the attribute is still styled as expected. In addition, legacy user agents which don't support the hidden until found state will have 'display: none' instead of 'content-visibility: hidden', so authors are encouraged to make sure that their style sheets don't change the 'display' or 'content-visibility' properties of hidden until found elements.

Since elements with the hidden attribute in the hidden until found state use 'content-visibility: hidden' instead of 'display: none', there are two caveats of the hidden until found state that make it different from the hidden state:

  1. The element needs to be affected by layout containment in order to be revealed by find-in-page. This means that if the element in the hidden until found state has a 'display' value of 'none', 'contents', or 'inline', then the element will not be revealed by find-in-page.

  2. The element will still have a generated box when in the hidden until found state, which means that borders, margin, and padding will still be rendered around the element.

In the following skeletal example, the attribute is used to hide the web game's main screen until the user logs in:

  <h1>The Example Game</h1>
  <section id="login">
   <h2>Login</h2>
   <form>
    ...
    <!-- calls login() once the user's credentials have been checked -->
   </form>
   <script>
    function login() {
      // switch screens
      document.getElementById('login').hidden = true;
      document.getElementById('game').hidden = false;
    }
   </script>
  </section>
  <section id="game" hidden>
   ...
  </section>

The hidden attribute must not be used to hide content that could legitimately be shown in another presentation. For example, it is incorrect to use hidden to hide panels in a tabbed dialog, because the tabbed interface is merely a kind of overflow presentation — one could equally well just show all the form controls in one big page with a scrollbar. It is similarly incorrect to use this attribute to hide content just from one presentation — if something is marked hidden, it is hidden from all presentations, including, for instance, screen readers.

Elements that are not themselves hidden must not hyperlink to elements that are hidden. The for attributes of label and output elements that are not themselves hidden must similarly not refer to elements that are hidden. In both cases, such references would cause user confusion.

Elements and scripts may, however, refer to elements that are hidden in other contexts.

For example, it would be incorrect to use the href attribute to link to a section marked with the hidden attribute. If the content is not applicable or relevant, then there is no reason to link to it.

It would be fine, however, to use the ARIA aria-describedby attribute to refer to descriptions that are themselves hidden. While hiding the descriptions implies that they are not useful alone, they could be written in such a way that they are useful in the specific context of being referenced from the elements that they describe.

Similarly, a canvas element with the hidden attribute could be used by a scripted graphics engine as an off-screen buffer, and a form control could refer to a hidden form element using its form attribute.

Elements in a section hidden by the hidden attribute are still active, e.g. scripts and form controls in such sections still execute and submit respectively. Only their presentation to the user changes.

6.2 Page visibility

A traversable navigable's system visibility state, including its initial value upon creation, is determined by the user agent. It represents, for example, whether the browser window is minimized, a browser tab is currently in the background, or a system element such as a task switcher obscures the page.

When a user-agent determines that the system visibility state for traversable navigable traversable has changed to newState, it must run the following steps:

  1. Let navigables be the inclusive descendant navigables of traversable.

  2. For each navigable of navigables in what order?:

    1. Let document be navigable's active document.

    2. Queue a global task on the user interaction task source given document's relevant global object to update the visibility state of document with newState.

A Document has a visibility state, which is either "hidden" or "visible", initially set to "hidden".

Document/visibilityState

Support in all current engines.

Firefox18+Safari7+Chrome33+
Opera20+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet Explorer10+
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android4.4.3+Samsung Internet?Opera Android20+

The visibilityState getter steps are to return this's visibility state.

Document/hidden

Support in all current engines.

Firefox18+Safari7+Chrome33+
Opera12.1+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet Explorer10+
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android4.4.3+Samsung Internet?Opera Android12.1+

The hidden getter steps are to return true if this's visibility state is "hidden", otherwise false.

To update the visibility state of Document document to visibilityState:

  1. If document's visibility state equals visibilityState, then return.

  2. Set document's visibility state to visibilityState.

  3. Run any page visibility change steps which may be defined in other specifications, with visibility state and document.

    It would be better if specification authors sent a pull request to add calls from here into their specifications directly, instead of using the page visibility change steps hook, to ensure well-defined cross-specification call order. As of the time of this writing the following specifications are known to have page visibility change steps, which will be run in an unspecified order: Device Posture API, Screen Orientation API, and Web NFC. [DEVICEPOSTURE] [SCREENORIENTATION] [WEBNFC]

  4. Fire an event named visibilitychange at document, with its bubbles attribute initialized to true.

6.3 Inert subtrees

See also inert for an explanation of the attribute of the same name.

A node (in particular elements and text nodes) can be inert. When a node is inert:

Inert nodes generally cannot be focused. Inert nodes that are commands will also get disabled.

User agents may allow the user to override the restrictions on search and text selection, however.

By default, a node is not inert.

A Document document is blocked by a modal dialog subject if subject is the topmost dialog element in document's top layer. While document is so blocked, every node that is connected to document, with the exception of the subject element and its flat tree descendants, must become inert.

subject can additionally become inert via the inert attribute, but only if specified on subject itself (i.e., subject escapes inertness of ancestors); subject's flat tree descendants can become inert in a similar fashion.

The dialog element's showModal() method causes this mechanism to trigger, by adding the dialog element to its node document's top layer.

6.3.2 The inert attribute

The inert attribute is a boolean attribute that indicates, by its presence, that the element and all its flat tree descendants which don't otherwise escape inertness (such as modal dialogs) are to be made inert by the user agent.

By default, there is no persistent visual indication of a subtree being inert. Authors are encouraged to clearly mark what parts of their document are active and which are inert, to avoid user confusion. In particular, it is worth remembering that not all users can see all parts of a page at once; for example, users of screen readers, users on small devices or with magnifiers, and even users using particularly small windows might not be able to see the active part of a page and might get frustrated if inert sections are not obviously inert. For individual controls, the disabled attribute is probably more appropriate.

HTMLElement/inert

Support in all current engines.

Firefoxpreview+Safari15.5+Chrome102+
Opera?Edge102+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox AndroidNoSafari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

The inert IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

6.4 Tracking user activation

To prevent abuse of certain APIs that could be annoying to users (e.g., opening popups or vibrating phones), user agents allow these APIs only when the user is actively interacting with the web page or has interacted with the page at least once. This "active interaction" state is maintained through the mechanisms defined in this section.

APIs that are dependent on user activation are classified into three different levels. The levels are as follows, sorted by their "strength of dependence" on user activation (from weakest to strongest):

Sticky activation-gated APIs

These APIs require the sticky activation state to be true, so they are blocked until the very first user activation.

Transient activation-gated APIs

These APIs require the transient activation state to be true, but they don't consume it, so multiple calls are allowed per user activation until the transient state expires.

Transient activation-consuming APIs

These APIs require the transient activation state to be true, and they consume user activation in each call to prevent multiple calls per user activation.

6.4.1 The UserActivation interface

UserActivation

Support in one engine only.

FirefoxNoSafariNoChrome72+
Opera?Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

Each Window has an associated UserActivation, which is a UserActivation object. Upon creation of the Window object, its associated UserActivation must be set to a new UserActivation object created in the Window object's relevant realm.

navigator.userActivation.hasBeenActive

Navigator/userActivation

Support in one engine only.

FirefoxNoSafariNoChrome72+
Opera?Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

UserActivation/hasBeenActive

Support in one engine only.

FirefoxNoSafariNoChrome72+
Opera?Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

Returns whether the window has sticky activation.

navigator.userActivation.isActive

UserActivation/hasBeenActive

Support in one engine only.

FirefoxNoSafariNoChrome97+
Opera?Edge97+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

Returns whether the window has transient activation.

6.5 Activation behavior of elements

Certain elements in HTML have an activation behavior, which means that the user can activate them. This is always caused by a click event.

element.click()

Acts as if the element was clicked.

6.6 Focus

6.6.1 Introduction

An HTML user interface typically consists of multiple interactive widgets, such as form controls, scrollable regions, links, dialog boxes, browser tabs, and so forth. These widgets form a hierarchy, with some (e.g. browser tabs, dialog boxes) containing others (e.g. links, form controls).

When interacting with an interface using a keyboard, key input is channeled from the system, through the hierarchy of interactive widgets, to an active widget, which is said to be focused.

Consider an HTML application running in a browser tab running in a graphical environment. Suppose this application had a page with some text controls and links, and was currently showing a modal dialog, which itself had a text control and a button.

The hierarchy of focusable widgets, in this scenario, would include the browser window, which would have, amongst its children, the browser tab containing the HTML application. The tab itself would have as its children the various links and text controls, as well as the dialog. The dialog itself would have as its children the text control and the button.

If the widget with focus in this example was the text control in the dialog box, then key input would be channeled from the graphical system to ① the web browser, then to ② the tab, then to ③ the dialog, and finally to ④ the text control.

Keyboard events are always targeted at this focused element.

6.6.2 Data model

A top-level traversable has system focus when it can receive keyboard input channeled from the operating system, possibly targeted at one of its active document's descendant navigables.

System focus is lost when a browser window loses focus, but might also be lost to other system widgets in the browser window such as a URL bar.

The term focusable area is used to refer to regions of the interface that can further become the target of such keyboard input. Focusable areas can be elements, parts of elements, or other regions managed by the user agent.

Each focusable area has a DOM anchor, which is a Node object that represents the position of the focusable area in the DOM. (When the focusable area is itself a Node, it is its own DOM anchor.) The DOM anchor is used in some APIs as a substitute for the focusable area when there is no other DOM object to represent the focusable area.

The following table describes what objects can be focusable areas. The cells in the left column describe objects that can be focusable areas; the cells in the right column describe the DOM anchors for those elements. (The cells that span both columns are non-normative examples.)

Focusable area DOM anchor
Examples
Elements that meet all the following criteria: The element itself.

iframe, <input type=text>, sometimes <a href=""> (depending on platform conventions).

The shapes of area elements in an image map associated with an img element that is being rendered and is not inert. The img element.

In the following example, the area element creates two shapes, one on each image. The DOM anchor of the first shape is the first img element, and the DOM anchor of the second shape is the second img element.

<map id=wallmap><area alt="Enter Door" coords="10,10,100,200" href="door.html"></map>
...
<img src="images/innerwall.jpeg" alt="There is a white wall here, with a door." usemap="#wallmap">
...
<img src="images/outerwall.jpeg" alt="There is a red wall here, with a door." usemap="#wallmap">
The user-agent provided subwidgets of elements that are being rendered and are not actually disabled or inert. The element for which the focusable area is a subwidget.

The controls in the user interface for a video element, the up and down buttons in a spin-control version of <input type=number>, the part of a details element's rendering that enables the element to be opened or closed using keyboard input.

The scrollable regions of elements that are being rendered and are not inert. The element for which the box that the scrollable region scrolls was created.

The CSS 'overflow' property's 'scroll' value typically creates a scrollable region.

The viewport of a Document that has a non-null browsing context and is not inert. The Document for which the viewport was created.

The contents of an iframe.

Any other element or part of an element determined by the user agent to be a focusable area, especially to aid with accessibility or to better match platform conventions. The element.

A user agent could make all list item bullets sequentially focusable, so that a user can more easily navigate lists.

Similarly, a user agent could make all elements with title attributes sequentially focusable, so that their advisory information can be accessed.

A navigable container (e.g. an iframe) is a focusable area, but key events routed to a navigable container get immediately routed to its nested navigable's active document. Similarly, in sequential focus navigation a navigable container essentially acts merely as a placeholder for its nested navigable's active document.


One focusable area in each Document is designated the focused area of the document. Which control is so designated changes over time, based on algorithms in this specification.

Even if a document is not fully active and not shown to the user, it can still have a focused area of the document. If a document's fully active state changes, its focused area of the document will stay the same.

The currently focused area of a top-level traversable traversable is the focusable area-or-null returned by this algorithm:

  1. If traversable does not have system focus, then return null.

  2. Let candidate be traversable's active document.

  3. While candidate's focused area is a navigable container with a non-null nested navigable: set candidate to the active document of that navigable container's nested navigable.

  4. If candidate's focused area is non-null, set candidate to candidate's focused area.

  5. Return candidate.

The current focus chain of a top-level traversable traversable is the focus chain of the currently focused area of traversable, if traversable is non-null, or an empty list otherwise.

An element that is the DOM anchor of a focusable area is said to gain focus when that focusable area becomes the currently focused area of a top-level traversable. When an element is the DOM anchor of a focusable area of the currently focused area of a top-level traversable, it is focused.

6.6.3 The tabindex attribute

Global_attributes/tabindex

Support in all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
Opera?EdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet ExplorerYes
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

The tabindex content attribute allows authors to make an element and regions that have the element as its DOM anchor be focusable areas, allow or prevent them from being sequentially focusable, and determine their relative ordering for sequential focus navigation.

The name "tab index" comes from the common use of the Tab key to navigate through the focusable elements. The term "tabbing" refers to moving forward through sequentially focusable focusable areas.

The tabindex attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a valid integer. Positive numbers specify the relative position of the element's focusable areas in the sequential focus navigation order, and negative numbers indicate that the control is not sequentially focusable.

Developers should use caution when using values other than 0 or −1 for their tabindex attributes as this is complicated to do correctly.

The following provides a summary of the behaviors of the possible tabindex attribute values.

omitted (or non-integer values)
The user agent will decide whether the element is focusable, and if it is, whether it is sequentially focusable or click focusable (or both).
−1 (or other negative integer values)
Causes the element to be focusable, and indicates that the author would prefer the element to be click focusable but not sequentially focusable. The user agent might ignore this preference for click and sequential focusability, e.g., for specific element types according to platform conventions, or for keyboard-only users.
0
Causes the element to be focusable, and indicates that the author would prefer the element to be both click focusable and sequentially focusable. The user agent might ignore this preference for click and sequential focusability.
positive integer values
Behaves the same as 0, but in addition creates a relative ordering within a tabindex-ordered focus navigation scope, so that elements with higher tabindex attribute value come later.

Note that the tabindex attribute cannot be used to make an element non-focusable. The only way a page author can do that is by disabling the element, or making it inert.

6.6.4 Focus management APIs

documentOrShadowRoot.activeElement

Returns the deepest element in the document through which or to which key events are being routed. This is, roughly speaking, the focused element in the document.

For the purposes of this API, when a child navigable is focused, its container is focused within its parent's active document. For example, if the user moves the focus to a text control in an iframe, the iframe is the element returned by the activeElement API in the iframe's node document.

Similarly, when the focused element is in a different node tree than documentOrShadowRoot, the element returned will be the host that's located in the same node tree as documentOrShadowRoot if documentOrShadowRoot is a shadow-including inclusive ancestor of the focused element, and null if not.

document.hasFocus()

Returns true if key events are being routed through or to the document; otherwise, returns false. Roughly speaking, this corresponds to the document, or a document nested inside this one, being focused.

window.focus()

Moves the focus to the window's navigable, if any.

element.focus([ { preventScroll: true } ])

Moves the focus to the element.

If the element is a navigable container, moves the focus to its nested navigable instead.

By default, this method also scrolls the element into view. Providing the preventScroll option and setting it to true prevents this behavior.

element.blur()

Moves the focus to the viewport. Use of this method is discouraged; if you want to focus the viewport, call the focus() method on the Document's document element.

Do not use this method to hide the focus ring if you find the focus ring unsightly. Instead, use the :focus-visible pseudo-class to override the 'outline' property, and provide a different way to show what element is focused. Be aware that if an alternative focusing style isn't made available, the page will be significantly less usable for people who primarily navigate pages using a keyboard, or those with reduced vision who use focus outlines to help them navigate the page.

For example, to hide the outline from textarea elements and instead use a yellow background to indicate focus, you could use:

textarea:focus-visible { outline: none; background: yellow; color: black; }

6.6.5 The autofocus attribute

The autofocus content attribute allows the author to indicate that an element is to be focused as soon as the page is loaded or as soon as the dialog within which it finds itself is shown, allowing the user to just start typing without having to manually focus the main element.

The autofocus attribute is a boolean attribute.

An element's nearest ancestor autofocus scoping root element is the element itself if the element is a dialog element, or else is the element's nearest ancestor dialog element, if any, or else is the element's last inclusive ancestor element.

There must not be two elements with the same nearest ancestor autofocus scoping root element that both have the autofocus attribute specified.

In the following snippet, the text control would be focused when the document was loaded.

<input maxlength="256" name="q" value="" autofocus>
<input type="submit" value="Search">

The autofocus attribute applies to all elements, not just to form controls. This allows examples such as the following:

<div contenteditable autofocus>Edit <strong>me!</strong><div>

6.7 Assigning keyboard shortcuts

6.7.1 Introduction

Each element that can be activated or focused can be assigned a single key combination to activate it, using the accesskey attribute.

The exact shortcut is determined by the user agent, based on information about the user's keyboard, what keyboard shortcuts already exist on the platform, and what other shortcuts have been specified on the page, using the information provided in the accesskey attribute as a guide.

In order to ensure that a relevant keyboard shortcut is available on a wide variety of input devices, the author can provide a number of alternatives in the accesskey attribute.

Each alternative consists of a single character, such as a letter or digit.

User agents can provide users with a list of the keyboard shortcuts, but authors are encouraged to do so also. The accessKeyLabel IDL attribute returns a string representing the actual key combination assigned by the user agent.

In this example, an author has provided a button that can be invoked using a shortcut key. To support full keyboards, the author has provided "C" as a possible key. To support devices equipped only with numeric keypads, the author has provided "1" as another possible key.

<input type=button value=Collect onclick="collect()"
       accesskey="C 1" id=c>

To tell the user what the shortcut key is, the author has this script here opted to explicitly add the key combination to the button's label:

function addShortcutKeyLabel(button) {
  if (button.accessKeyLabel != '')
    button.value += ' (' + button.accessKeyLabel + ')';
}
addShortcutKeyLabel(document.getElementById('c'));

Browsers on different platforms will show different labels, even for the same key combination, based on the convention prevalent on that platform. For example, if the key combination is the Control key, the Shift key, and the letter C, a Windows browser might display "Ctrl+Shift+C", whereas a Mac browser might display "^⇧C", while an Emacs browser might just display "C-C". Similarly, if the key combination is the Alt key and the Escape key, Windows might use "Alt+Esc", Mac might use "⌥⎋", and an Emacs browser might use "M-ESC" or "ESC ESC".

In general, therefore, it is unwise to attempt to parse the value returned from the accessKeyLabel IDL attribute.

6.7.2 The accesskey attribute

Global_attributes/accesskey

Support in all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
Opera?EdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet ExplorerYes
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

All HTML elements may have the accesskey content attribute set. The accesskey attribute's value is used by the user agent as a guide for creating a keyboard shortcut that activates or focuses the element.

If specified, the value must be an ordered set of unique space-separated tokens none of which are identical to another token and each of which must be exactly one code point in length.

In the following example, a variety of links are given with access keys so that keyboard users familiar with the site can more quickly navigate to the relevant pages:

<nav>
 <p>
  <a title="Consortium Activities" accesskey="A" href="/Consortium/activities">Activities</a> |
  <a title="Technical Reports and Recommendations" accesskey="T" href="/TR/">Technical Reports</a> |
  <a title="Alphabetical Site Index" accesskey="S" href="/Consortium/siteindex">Site Index</a> |
  <a title="About This Site" accesskey="B" href="/Consortium/">About Consortium</a> |
  <a title="Contact Consortium" accesskey="C" href="/Consortium/contact">Contact</a>
 </p>
</nav>

In the following example, the search field is given two possible access keys, "s" and "0" (in that order). A user agent on a device with a full keyboard might pick Ctrl + Alt + S as the shortcut key, while a user agent on a small device with just a numeric keypad might pick just the plain unadorned key 0:

<form action="/search">
 <label>Search: <input type="search" name="q" accesskey="s 0"></label>
 <input type="submit">
</form>

In the following example, a button has possible access keys described. A script then tries to update the button's label to advertise the key combination the user agent selected.

<input type=submit accesskey="N @ 1" value="Compose">
...
<script>
 function labelButton(button) {
   if (button.accessKeyLabel)
     button.value += ' (' + button.accessKeyLabel + ')';
 }
 var inputs = document.getElementsByTagName('input');
 for (var i = 0; i < inputs.length; i += 1) {
   if (inputs[i].type == "submit")
     labelButton(inputs[i]);
 }
</script>

On one user agent, the button's label might become "Compose (⌘N)". On another, it might become "Compose (Alt+⇧+1)". If the user agent doesn't assign a key, it will be just "Compose". The exact string depends on what the assigned access key is, and on how the user agent represents that key combination.

6.8 Editing

6.8.1 Making document regions editable: The contenteditable content attribute

HTMLElement/contentEditable

Support in all current engines.

Firefox3+Safari3+Chrome1+
Opera9+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet Explorer5.5+
Firefox Android?Safari iOS1+Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android10.1+

Global_attributes/contenteditable

Support in all current engines.

Firefox3+SafariYesChromeYes
Opera9+EdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet Explorer5.5+
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

The contenteditable content attribute is an enumerated attribute whose keywords are the empty string, true, and false. The empty string and the true keyword map to the true state. The false keyword maps to the false state. In addition, there is a third state, the inherit state, which is the missing value default and the invalid value default.

The true state indicates that the element is editable. The inherit state indicates that the element is editable if its parent is. The false state indicates that the element is not editable.

For example, consider a page that has a form and a textarea to publish a new article, where the user is expected to write the article using HTML:

<form method=POST>
 <fieldset>
  <legend>New article</legend>
  <textarea name=article>&lt;p>Hello world.&lt;/p></textarea>
 </fieldset>
 <p><button>Publish</button></p>
</form>

When scripting is enabled, the textarea element could be replaced with a rich text control instead, using the contenteditable attribute:

<form method=POST>
 <fieldset>
  <legend>New article</legend>
  <textarea id=textarea name=article>&lt;p>Hello world.&lt;/p></textarea>
  <div id=div style="white-space: pre-wrap" hidden><p>Hello world.</p></div>
  <script>
   let textarea = document.getElementById("textarea");
   let div = document.getElementById("div");
   textarea.hidden = true;
   div.hidden = false;
   div.contentEditable = "true";
   div.oninput = (e) => {
     textarea.value = div.innerHTML;
   };
  </script>
 </fieldset>
 <p><button>Publish</button></p>
</form>

Features to enable, e.g., inserting links, can be implemented using the document.execCommand() API, or using Selection APIs and other DOM APIs. [EXECCOMMAND] [SELECTION] [DOM]

The contenteditable attribute can also be used to great effect:

<!doctype html>
<html lang=en>
<title>Live CSS editing!</title>
<style style=white-space:pre contenteditable>
html { margin:.2em; font-size:2em; color:lime; background:purple }
head, title, style { display:block }
body { display:none }
</style>
element.contentEditable [ = value ]

Returns "true", "false", or "inherit", based on the state of the contenteditable attribute.

Can be set, to change that state.

Throws a "SyntaxError" DOMException if the new value isn't one of those strings.

element.isContentEditable

Returns true if the element is editable; otherwise, returns false.

6.8.2 Making entire documents editable: the designMode getter and setter

document.designMode [ = value ]

Returns "on" if the document is editable, and "off" if it isn't.

Can be set, to change the document's current state. This focuses the document and resets the selection in that document.

6.8.3 Best practices for in-page editors

Authors are encouraged to set the 'white-space' property on editing hosts and on markup that was originally created through these editing mechanisms to the value 'pre-wrap'. Default HTML whitespace handling is not well suited to WYSIWYG editing, and line wrapping will not work correctly in some corner cases if 'white-space' is left at its default value.

As an example of problems that occur if the default 'normal' value is used instead, consider the case of the user typing "yellow␣␣ball", with two spaces (here represented by "␣") between the words. With the editing rules in place for the default value of 'white-space' ('normal'), the resulting markup will either consist of "yellow&nbsp; ball" or "yellow &nbsp;ball"; i.e., there will be a non-breaking space between the two words in addition to the regular space. This is necessary because the 'normal' value for 'white-space' requires adjacent regular spaces to be collapsed together.

In the former case, "yellow⍽" might wrap to the next line ("⍽" being used here to represent a non-breaking space) even though "yellow" alone might fit at the end of the line; in the latter case, "⍽ball", if wrapped to the start of the line, would have visible indentation from the non-breaking space.

When 'white-space' is set to 'pre-wrap', however, the editing rules will instead simply put two regular spaces between the words, and should the two words be split at the end of a line, the spaces would be neatly removed from the rendering.

6.8.4 Spelling and grammar checking

Global_attributes/spellcheck

Support in all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome9+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+Internet Explorer11
Firefox Android57+Safari iOS9.3+Chrome Android47+WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android37+

The spellcheck attribute is an enumerated attribute whose keywords are the empty string, true and false. The empty string and the true keyword map to the true state. The false keyword maps to the false state. In addition, there is a third state, the default state, which is the missing value default and the invalid value default.

The true state indicates that the element is to have its spelling and grammar checked. The default state indicates that the element is to act according to a default behavior, possibly based on the parent element's own spellcheck state, as defined below. The false state indicates that the element is not to be checked.

element.spellcheck [ = value ]

Returns true if the element is to have its spelling and grammar checked; otherwise, returns false.

Can be set, to override the default and set the spellcheck content attribute.

This specification does not define the user interface for spelling and grammar checkers. A user agent could offer on-demand checking, could perform continuous checking while the checking is enabled, or could use other interfaces.

6.8.5 Autocapitalization

Some methods of entering text, for example virtual keyboards on mobile devices, and also voice input, often assist users by automatically capitalizing the first letter of sentences (when composing text in a language with this convention). A virtual keyboard that implements autocapitalization might automatically switch to showing uppercase letters (but allow the user to toggle it back to lowercase) when a letter that should be autocapitalized is about to be typed. Other types of input, for example voice input, may perform autocapitalization in a way that does not give users an option to intervene first. The autocapitalize attribute allows authors to control such behavior.

The autocapitalize attribute, as typically implemented, does not affect behavior when typing on a physical keyboard. (For this reason, as well as the ability for users to override the autocapitalization behavior in some cases or edit the text after initial input, the attribute must not be relied on for any sort of input validation.)

The autocapitalize attribute can be used on an editing host to control autocapitalization behavior for the hosted editable region, on an input or textarea element to control the behavior for inputting text into that element, or on a form element to control the default behavior for all autocapitalize-inheriting elements associated with the form element.

The autocapitalize attribute never causes autocapitalization to be enabled for input elements whose type attribute is in one of the URL, Email, or Password states.

The autocapitalization processing model is based on selecting among five autocapitalization hints, defined as follows:

default

The user agent and input method should use make their own determination of whether or not to enable autocapitalization.

none

No autocapitalization should be applied (all letters should default to lowercase).

sentences

The first letter of each sentence should default to a capital letter; all other letters should default to lowercase.

words

The first letter of each word should default to a capital letter; all other letters should default to lowercase.

characters

All letters should default to uppercase.

Global_attributes/autocapitalize

Support in all current engines.

Firefox🔰 83+SafariNoChrome43+
Opera?Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet Explorer?
Firefox Android?Safari iOS5+Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

The autocapitalize attribute is an enumerated attribute whose states are the possible autocapitalization hints. The autocapitalization hint specified by the attribute's state combines with other considerations to form the used autocapitalization hint, which informs the behavior of the user agent. The keywords for this attribute and their state mappings are as follows:

Keyword State
off none
none
on sentences
sentences
words words
characters characters

The invalid value default is the sentences state. The missing value default is the default state.

element.autocapitalize [ = value ]

Returns the current autocapitalization state for the element, or an empty string if it hasn't been set. Note that for input and textarea elements that inherit their state from a form element, this will return the autocapitalization state of the form element, but for an element in an editable region, this will not return the autocapitalization state of the editing host (unless this element is, in fact, the editing host).

Can be set, to set the autocapitalize content attribute (and thereby change the autocapitalization behavior for the element).

6.8.6 Input modalities: the inputmode attribute

User agents can support the inputmode attribute on form controls (such as the value of textarea elements), or in elements in an editing host (e.g., using contenteditable).

Global_attributes/inputmode

Support in all current engines.

Firefox95+SafariNoChrome66+
Opera?Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox Android79+Safari iOS12.2+Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android?

The inputmode content attribute is an enumerated attribute that specifies what kind of input mechanism would be most helpful for users entering content.

Keyword Description
none The user agent should not display a virtual keyboard. This keyword is useful for content that renders its own keyboard control.
text The user agent should display a virtual keyboard capable of text input in the user's locale.
tel The user agent should display a virtual keyboard capable of telephone number input. This should including keys for the digits 0 to 9, the "#" character, and the "*" character. In some locales, this can also include alphabetic mnemonic labels (e.g., in the US, the key labeled "2" is historically also labeled with the letters A, B, and C).
url The user agent should display a virtual keyboard capable of text input in the user's locale, with keys for aiding in the input of URLs, such as that for the "/" and "." characters and for quick input of strings commonly found in domain names such as "www." or ".com".
email The user agent should display a virtual keyboard capable of text input in the user's locale, with keys for aiding in the input of email addresses, such as that for the "@" character and the "." character.
numeric The user agent should display a virtual keyboard capable of numeric input. This keyword is useful for PIN entry.
decimal The user agent should display a virtual keyboard capable of fractional numeric input. Numeric keys and the format separator for the locale should be shown.
search The user agent should display a virtual keyboard optimized for search.

6.8.7 Input modalities: the enterkeyhint attribute

User agents can support the enterkeyhint attribute on form controls (such as the value of textarea elements), or in elements in an editing host (e.g., using contenteditable).

Global_attributes/enterkeyhint

Support in all current engines.

Firefox94+Safari13.1+Chrome77+
Opera66+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)?Internet ExplorerNo
Firefox Android?Safari iOS?Chrome Android?WebView Android?Samsung Internet?Opera Android57+

The enterkeyhint content attribute is an enumerated attribute that specifies what action label (or icon) to present for the enter key on virtual keyboards. This allows authors to customize the presentation of the enter key in order to make it more helpful for users.

Keyword Description
enter The user agent should present a cue for the operation 'enter', typically inserting a new line.
done The user agent should present a cue for the operation 'done', typically meaning there is nothing more to input and the input method editor (IME) will be closed.
go The user agent should present a cue for the operation 'go', typically meaning to take the user to the target of the text they typed.
next The user agent should present a cue for the operation 'next', typically taking the user to the next field that will accept text.
previous The user agent should present a cue for the operation 'previous', typically taking the user to the previous field that will accept text.
search The user agent should present a cue for the operation 'search', typically taking the user to the results of searching for the text they have typed.
send The user agent should present a cue for the operation 'send', typically delivering the text to its target.

6.9 Find-in-page

6.9.1 Introduction

This section defines find-in-page — a common user-agent mechanism which allows users to search through the contents of the page for particular information.

Access to the find-in-page feature is provided via a find-in-page interface. This is a user-agent provided user interface, which allows the user to specify input and the parameters of the search. This interface can appear as a result of a shortcut or a menu selection.

A combination of text input and settings in the find-in-page interface represents the user query. This typically includes the text that the user wants to search for, as well as optional settings (e.g., the ability to restrict the search to whole words only).

The user-agent processes page contents for a given query, and identifies zero or more matches, which are content ranges that satisfy the user query.

One of the matches is identified to the user as the active match. It is highlighted and scrolled into view. The user can navigate through the matches by advancing the active match using the find-in-page interface.

Issue #3539 tracks standardizing how find-in-page underlies the currently-unspecified window.find() API.

6.9.2 Interaction with details and hidden=until-found

When find-in-page begins searching for matches, all details elements in the page which do not have their open attribute set should have the skipped contents of their second slot become accessible, without modifying the open attribute, in order to make find-in-page able to search through it. Similarly, all HTML elements with the hidden attribute in the hidden until found state should have their skipped contents become accessible without modifying the hidden attribute in order to make find-in-page able to search through them. After find-in-page finishes searching for matches, the details elements and the elements with the hidden attribute in the hidden until found state should have their contents become skipped again. This entire process must happen synchronously (and so is not observable to users or to author code). [CSSCONTAIN]

When find-in-page chooses a new active match, perform the following steps:

  1. Let node be the first node in the active match.

  2. Queue a global task on the user interaction task source given node's relevant global object to run the following steps:

    1. Run the ancestor details revealing algorithm on node.

    2. Run the ancestor hidden-until-found revealing algorithm on node.

When find-in-page auto-expands a details element like this, it will fire a toggle event. As with the separate scroll event that find-in-page fires, this event could be used by the page to discover what the user is typing into the find-in-page dialog. If the page creates a tiny scrollable area with the current search term and every possible next character the user could type separated by a gap, and observes which one the browser scrolls to, it can add that character to the search term and update the scrollable area to incrementally build the search term. By wrapping each possible next match in a closed details element, the page could listen to toggle events instead of scroll events. This attack could be addressed for both events by not acting on every character the user types into the find-in-page dialog.

6.9.3 Interaction with selection

The find-in-page process is invoked in the context of a document, and may have an effect on the selection of that document. Specifically, the range that defines the active match can dictate the current selection. These selection updates, however, can happen at different times during the find-in-page process (e.g. upon the find-in-page interface dismissal or upon a change in the active match range).