1. 4.12 Scripting
      1. 4.12.1 The script element
        1. 4.12.1.1 Processing model
        2. 4.12.1.2 Scripting languages
        3. 4.12.1.3 Restrictions for contents of script elements
        4. 4.12.1.4 Inline documentation for external scripts
        5. 4.12.1.5 Interaction of script elements and XSLT
      2. 4.12.2 The noscript element
      3. 4.12.3 The template element
        1. 4.12.3.1 Interaction of template elements with XSLT and XPath
      4. 4.12.4 The slot element
      5. 4.12.5 The canvas element
        1. 4.12.5.1 The 2D rendering context
          1. 4.12.5.1.1 Implementation notes
          2. 4.12.5.1.2 The canvas state
          3. 4.12.5.1.3 Line styles
          4. 4.12.5.1.4 Text styles
          5. 4.12.5.1.5 Building paths
          6. 4.12.5.1.6 Path2D objects
          7. 4.12.5.1.7 Transformations
          8. 4.12.5.1.8 Image sources for 2D rendering contexts
          9. 4.12.5.1.9 Fill and stroke styles
          10. 4.12.5.1.10 Drawing rectangles to the bitmap
          11. 4.12.5.1.11 Drawing text to the bitmap
          12. 4.12.5.1.12 Drawing paths to the canvas
          13. 4.12.5.1.13 Drawing focus rings and scrolling paths into view
          14. 4.12.5.1.14 Drawing images
          15. 4.12.5.1.15 Hit regions
          16. 4.12.5.1.16 Pixel manipulation
          17. 4.12.5.1.17 Compositing
          18. 4.12.5.1.18 Image smoothing
          19. 4.12.5.1.19 Shadows
          20. 4.12.5.1.20 Filters
          21. 4.12.5.1.21 Working with externally-defined SVG filters
          22. 4.12.5.1.22 Drawing model
          23. 4.12.5.1.23 Best practices
          24. 4.12.5.1.24 Examples
        2. 4.12.5.2 The ImageBitmap rendering context
        3. 4.12.5.3 Color spaces and color correction
        4. 4.12.5.4 Serializing bitmaps to a file
        5. 4.12.5.5 Security with canvas elements
    2. 4.13 Custom elements
      1. 4.13.1 Introduction
        1. 4.13.1.1 Creating an autonomous custom element
        2. 4.13.1.2 Creating a customized built-in element
        3. 4.13.1.3 Drawbacks of autonomous custom elements
        4. 4.13.1.4 Upgrading elements after their creation
      2. 4.13.2 Requirements for custom element constructors
      3. 4.13.3 Core concepts
      4. 4.13.4 The CustomElementRegistry interface
      5. 4.13.5 Upgrades
      6. 4.13.6 Custom element reactions
    3. 4.14 Common idioms without dedicated elements
      1. 4.14.1 The main part of the content
      2. 4.14.2 Bread crumb navigation
      3. 4.14.3 Tag clouds
      4. 4.14.4 Conversations
      5. 4.14.5 Footnotes
    4. 4.15 Disabled elements
    5. 4.16 Matching HTML elements using selectors and CSS
      1. 4.16.1 Case-sensitivity of the CSS 'attr()' function
      2. 4.16.2 Case-sensitivity of selectors
      3. 4.16.3 Pseudo-classes

4.12 Scripting

Scripts allow authors to add interactivity to their documents.

Authors are encouraged to use declarative alternatives to scripting where possible, as declarative mechanisms are often more maintainable, and many users disable scripting.

For example, instead of using script to show or hide a section to show more details, the details element could be used.

Authors are also encouraged to make their applications degrade gracefully in the absence of scripting support.

For example, if an author provides a link in a table header to dynamically resort the table, the link could also be made to function without scripts by requesting the sorted table from the server.

4.12.1 The script element

Spec bugs: 23156

Categories:
Metadata content.
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Script-supporting element.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Where script-supporting elements are expected.
Content model:
If there is no src attribute, depends on the value of the type attribute, but must match script content restrictions.
If there is a src attribute, the element must be either empty or contain only script documentation that also matches script content restrictions.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
src — Address of the resource
type — Type of embedded resource
charset — Character encoding of the external script resource
async — Execute script when available, without blocking
defer — Defer script execution
crossorigin — How the element handles crossorigin requests
nonce — Cryptographic nonce used in Content Security Policy checks [CSP]
DOM interface:
[HTMLConstructor]
interface HTMLScriptElement : HTMLElement {
  [CEReactions] attribute USVString src;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString type;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString charset;
  [CEReactions] attribute boolean async;
  [CEReactions] attribute boolean defer;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString? crossOrigin;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString text;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString nonce;
};

The script element allows authors to include dynamic script and data blocks in their documents. The element does not represent content for the user.

The type attribute allows customization of the type of script represented:

The requirement that data blocks must be denoted using a valid MIME type is in place to avoid potential future collisions. If this specification ever adds additional types of script, they will be triggered by setting the type attribute to something which is not a MIME type, like how the "module" value denotes module scripts. By using a valid MIME type now, you ensure that your data block will not ever be reinterpreted as a different script type, even in future user agents.

Classic scripts and module scripts may either be embedded inline or may be imported from an external file using the src attribute, which if specified gives the URL of the external script resource to use. If src is specified, it must be a valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces. The contents of inline script elements, or the external script resource, must conform with the requirements of the JavaScript specification's Script or Module productions, for classic scripts and module scripts respectively. [JAVASCRIPT]

When used to include data blocks, the data must be embedded inline, the format of the data must be given using the type attribute, and the contents of the script element must conform to the requirements defined for the format used. The src, charset, async, defer, crossorigin, and nonce attributes must not be specified.

The charset attribute gives the character encoding of the external script resource. The attribute must not be specified if the src attribute is not present, or if the script is not a classic script. (Module scripts are always interpreted as UTF-8.) If the attribute is set, its value must be an ASCII case-insensitive match for one of the labels of an encoding, and must specify the same encoding as the charset parameter of the Content-Type metadata of the external file, if any. [ENCODING]

The async and defer attributes are boolean attributes that indicate how the script should be evaluated. Classic scripts may specify defer or async; module scripts may specify async.

Support: Chrome 8+Chrome for Android 51+iOS Safari 5.0-5.1+UC Browser for Android 9.9+Firefox 3.6+IE 10+Opera Mini NoneSamsung Internet 4+Android Browser 3+Safari 5.1+Edge 12+Opera 15+

Source: caniuse.com

Support: Chrome 8+Chrome for Android 51+iOS Safari 5.0-5.1+UC Browser for Android 9.9+Firefox 3.5+IE 10+Opera Mini NoneSamsung Internet 4+Android Browser 3+Safari 5+Edge 12+Opera 15+

Source: caniuse.com

There are several possible modes that can be selected using these attributes, and depending on the script's type.

For classic scripts, if the async attribute is present, then the classic script will be fetched in parallel to parsing and evaluated as soon as it is available (potentially before parsing completes). If the async attribute is not present but the defer attribute is present, then the classic script will be fetched in parallel and evaluated when the page has finished parsing. If neither attribute is present, then the script is fetched and evaluated immediately, blocking parsing until these are both complete.

For module scripts, if the async attribute is present, then the module script and all its dependencies will be fetched in parallel to parsing, and the module script will be evaluated as soon as it is available (potentially before parsing completes). Otherwise, the module script and its dependencies will be fetched in parallel to parsing and evaluated when the page has finished parsing. (The defer attribute has no effect on module scripts.)

This is all summarized in the following schematic diagram:

With <script>, parsing is interrupted by fetching and execution. With <script defer>, fetching is parallel to parsing and execution takes place after all parsing has finished. And with <script async>, fetching is parallel to parsing but once it finishes parsing is interrupted to execute the script. The story for <script type="module"> is similar to <script defer>, but the dependencies will be fetched as well, and the story for <script type="module" async> is similar to <script async> with the extra dependency fetching.

The exact processing details for these attributes are, for mostly historical reasons, somewhat non-trivial, involving a number of aspects of HTML. The implementation requirements are therefore by necessity scattered throughout the specification. The algorithms below (in this section) describe the core of this processing, but these algorithms reference and are referenced by the parsing rules for script start and end tags in HTML, in foreign content, and in XML, the rules for the document.write() method, the handling of scripting, etc.

The defer attribute may be specified even if the async attribute is specified, to cause legacy Web browsers that only support defer (and not async) to fall back to the defer behavior instead of the blocking behavior that is the default.

The crossorigin attribute is a CORS settings attribute. For classic scripts, it controls whether error information will be exposed, when the script is obtained from other origins. For module scripts, it controls the credentials mode used for cross-origin requests.

Unlike classic scripts, module scripts require the use of the CORS protocol for cross-origin fetching.

The nonce attribute represents a cryptographic nonce ("number used once") which can be used by Content Security Policy to determine whether or not the script specified by an element will be executed. The value is text. [CSP]

Changing the src, type, charset, async, defer, crossorigin, and nonce attributes dynamically has no direct effect; these attributes are only used at specific times described below.

The IDL attributes src, type, charset, defer, and nonce, must each reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The crossOrigin IDL attribute must reflect the crossorigin content attribute.

The async IDL attribute controls whether the element will execute asynchronously or not. If the element's "non-blocking" flag is set, then, on getting, the async IDL attribute must return true, and on setting, the "non-blocking" flag must first be unset, and then the content attribute must be removed if the IDL attribute's new value is false, and must be set to the empty string if the IDL attribute's new value is true. If the element's "non-blocking" flag is not set, the IDL attribute must reflect the async content attribute.

script . text [ = value ]

Returns the child text content of the element.

Can be set, to replace the element's children with the given value.

The IDL attribute text must return the child text content of the script element. On setting, it must act the same way as the textContent IDL attribute.

When inserted using the document.write() method, script elements execute (typically blocking further script execution or HTML parsing), but when inserted using innerHTML and outerHTML attributes, they do not execute at all.

In this example, two script elements are used. One embeds an external classic script, and the other includes some data as a data block.

<script src="game-engine.js"></script>
<script type="text/x-game-map">
........U.........e
o............A....e
.....A.....AAA....e
.A..AAA...AAAAA...e
</script>

The data in this case might be used by the script to generate the map of a video game. The data doesn't have to be used that way, though; maybe the map data is actually embedded in other parts of the page's markup, and the data block here is just used by the site's search engine to help users who are looking for particular features in their game maps.

The following sample shows how a script element can be used to define a function that is then used by other parts of the document, as part of a classic script. It also shows how a script element can be used to invoke script while the document is being parsed, in this case to initialize the form's output.

<script>
 function calculate(form) {
   var price = 52000;
   if (form.elements.brakes.checked)
     price += 1000;
   if (form.elements.radio.checked)
     price += 2500;
   if (form.elements.turbo.checked)
     price += 5000;
   if (form.elements.sticker.checked)
     price += 250;
   form.elements.result.value = price;
 }
</script>
<form name="pricecalc" onsubmit="return false" onchange="calculate(this)">
 <fieldset>
  <legend>Work out the price of your car</legend>
  <p>Base cost: £52000.</p>
  <p>Select additional options:</p>
  <ul>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=brakes> Ceramic brakes (£1000)</label></li>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=radio> Satellite radio (£2500)</label></li>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=turbo> Turbo charger (£5000)</label></li>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=sticker> "XZ" sticker (£250)</label></li>
  </ul>
  <p>Total: £<output name=result></output></p>
 </fieldset>
 <script>
  calculate(document.forms.pricecalc);
 </script>
</form>

The following sample shows how a script element can be used to include an external module script.

<script type="module" src="app.js"></script>

This module, and all its dependencies (expressed through JavaScript import statements in the source file), will be fetched. Once the entire resulting module tree has been imported, and the document has finished parsing, the contents of app.js will be evaluated.

Additionally, if code from another script element in the same Window imports the module from app.js (e.g. via import "./app.js";), then the same module script created by the former script element will be imported.

The following sample shows how a script element can be used to write an inline module script that performs a number of substitutions on the document's text, in order to make for a more interesting reading experience (e.g. on a news site): [XKCD1288]

<script type="module">
 import { walkAllTextNodeDescendants } from "./dom-utils.js";

 const substitutions = new Map([
   ["witnesses", "these dudes I know"]
   ["allegedly", "kinda probably"]
   ["new study", "Tumblr post"]
   ["rebuild", "avenge"]
   ["space", "spaaace"]
   ["Google glass", "Virtual Boy"]
   ["smartphone", "Pokédex"]
   ["electric", "atomic"]
   ["Senator", "Elf-Lord"]
   ["car", "cat"]
   ["election", "eating contest"]
   ["Congressional leaders", "river spirits"]
   ["homeland security", "Homestar Runner"]
   ["could not be reached for comment", "is guilty and everyone knows it"]
 ]);

 function substitute(textNode) {
   for (const [before, after] of substitutions.entries()) {
     textNode.data = textNode.data.replace(new RegExp(`\\b${before}\\b`, "ig"), after);
   }
 }

 walkAllTextNodeDescendants(document.body, substitute);
</script>

Some notable features gained by using a module script include the ability to import functions from other JavaScript modules, strict mode by default, and how top-level declarations do not introduce new properties onto the global object. Also note that no matter where this script element appears in the document, it will not be evaluated until both document parsing has complete and its dependency (dom-utils.js) has been fetched and evaluated.

4.12.1.1 Processing model

A script element has several associated pieces of state.

The first is a flag indicating whether or not the script block has been "already started". Initially, script elements must have this flag unset (script blocks, when created, are not "already started"). The cloning steps for script elements must set the "already started" flag on the copy if it is set on the element being cloned.

The second is a flag indicating whether the element was "parser-inserted". Initially, script elements must have this flag unset. It is set by the HTML parser and the XML parser on script elements they insert and affects the processing of those elements.

The third is a flag indicating whether the element will be "non-blocking". Initially, script elements must have this flag set. It is unset by the HTML parser and the XML parser on script elements they insert. In addition, whenever a script element whose "non-blocking" flag is set has an async content attribute added, the element's "non-blocking" flag must be unset.

The fourth is a flag indicating whether or not the script block is "ready to be parser-executed". Initially, script elements must have this flag unset (script blocks, when created, are not "ready to be parser-executed"). This flag is used only for elements that are also "parser-inserted", to let the parser know when to execute the script.

The fifth is the script's type, which is either "classic" or "module". It is determined when the script is prepared, based on the type attribute of the element at that time.

The sixth is a flag indicating whether or not the script is from an external file. It is determined when the script is prepared, based on the src attribute of the element at that time.

Finally, a script element has the script's script, which is a script resulting from preparing the element. This is set asynchronously after the classic script or module tree is fetched. Once it is set, either to a script in the case of success or to null in the case of failure, the fetching algorithms will note that the script is ready, which can trigger other actions. The user agent must delay the load event of the element's node document until the script is ready.


When a script element that is not marked as being "parser-inserted" experiences one of the events listed in the following list, the user agent must immediately prepare the script element:

To prepare a script, the user agent must act as follows:

  1. If the script element is marked as having "already started", then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

  2. If the element has its "parser-inserted" flag set, then set was-parser-inserted to true and unset the element's "parser-inserted" flag. Otherwise, set was-parser-inserted to false.

    This is done so that if parser-inserted script elements fail to run when the parser tries to run them, e.g. because they are empty or specify an unsupported scripting language, another script can later mutate them and cause them to run again.

  3. If was-parser-inserted is true and the element does not have an async attribute, then set the element's "non-blocking" flag to true.

    This is done so that if a parser-inserted script element fails to run when the parser tries to run it, but it is later executed after a script dynamically updates it, it will execute in a non-blocking fashion even if the async attribute isn't set.

  4. If the element has no src attribute, and its child nodes, if any, consist only of comment nodes and empty Text nodes, then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

  5. If the element is not connected, then abort these steps. The script is not executed.

  6. If either:

    ...let the script block's type string for this script element be "text/javascript".

    Otherwise, if the script element has a type attribute, let the script block's type string for this script element be the value of that attribute with any leading or trailing sequences of space characters removed.

    Otherwise, the element has a non-empty language attribute; let the script block's type string for this script element be the concatenation of the string "text/" followed by the value of the language attribute.

    The language attribute is never conforming, and is always ignored if there is a type attribute present.

    Determine the script's type as follows:

  7. If was-parser-inserted is true, then flag the element as "parser-inserted" again, and set the element's "non-blocking" flag to false.

  8. Set the element's "already started" flag.

  9. If the element is flagged as "parser-inserted", but the element's node document is not the Document of the parser that created the element, then abort these steps.

  10. If scripting is disabled for the script element, then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

    The definition of scripting is disabled means that, amongst others, the following scripts will not execute: scripts in XMLHttpRequest's responseXML documents, scripts in DOMParser-created documents, scripts in documents created by XSLTProcessor's transformToDocument feature, and scripts that are first inserted by a script into a Document that was created using the createDocument() API. [XHR] [DOMPARSING] [XSLTP] [DOM]

  11. If the script element does not have a src content attribute, and the Should element's inline behavior be blocked by Content Security Policy? algorithm returns "Blocked" when executed upon the script element, "script", and the script element's child text content, then abort these steps. The script is not executed. [CSP]

  12. If the script element has an event attribute and a for attribute, and the script's type is "classic", then run these substeps:

    1. Let for be the value of the for attribute.

    2. Let event be the value of the event attribute.

    3. Strip leading and trailing whitespace from event and for.

    4. If for is not an ASCII case-insensitive match for the string "window", then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

    5. If event is not an ASCII case-insensitive match for either the string "onload" or the string "onload()", then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

  13. If the script element has a charset attribute, then let encoding be the result of getting an encoding from the value of the charset attribute.

    If the script element does not have a charset attribute, or if getting an encoding failed, let encoding be the same as the encoding of the script element's node document.

    If the script's type is "module", this encoding will be ignored.

  14. Let CORS setting be the current state of the element's crossorigin content attribute.

  15. Let module script credentials mode be determined by switching on CORS setting:

    No CORS
    "omit"
    Anonymous
    "same-origin"
    Use Credentials
    "include"
  16. If the script element has a nonce attribute, then let cryptographic nonce be that attribute's value.

    Otherwise, let cryptographic nonce be the empty string.

  17. Let parser state be "parser-inserted" if the script element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and "not parser-inserted" otherwise.

  18. Let settings be the element's node document's Window object's environment settings object.

  19. If the element has a src content attribute, run these substeps:

    1. Let src be the value of the element's src attribute.

    2. If src is the empty string, queue a task to fire a simple event named error at the element, and abort these steps.

    3. Set the element's from an external file flag.

    4. Parse src relative to the element's node document.

    5. If the previous step failed, queue a task to fire a simple event named error at the element, and abort these steps. Otherwise, let url be the resulting URL record.

    6. Switch on the script's type:

      "classic"

      Fetch a classic script given url, settings, cryptographic nonce, parser state, CORS setting, and encoding.

      "module"

      Fetch a module script tree given url, settings, "script", cryptographic nonce, parser state, and module script credentials mode.

      When the chosen algorithm asynchronously completes, set the script's script to the result. At that time, the script is ready.

      For performance reasons, user agents may start fetching the classic script or module tree (as defined above) as soon as the src attribute is set, instead, in the hope that the element will be inserted into the document (and that the crossorigin attribute won't change value in the meantime). Either way, once the element is inserted into the document, the load must have started as described in this step. If the UA performs such prefetching, but the element is never inserted in the document, or the src attribute is dynamically changed, or the crossorigin attribute is dynamically changed, then the user agent will not execute the script so obtained, and the fetching process will have been effectively wasted.

  20. If the element does not have a src content attribute, run these substeps:

    1. Let source text be the value of the text IDL attribute.

    2. Switch on the script's type:

      "classic"
      1. Let script be the result of creating a classic script using source text and settings.

      2. Set the script's script to script.

      3. The script is ready.

      "module"
      1. Let base URL be the script element's node document's document base URL.

      2. Let script be the result of creating a module script using source text, settings, base URL, cryptographic nonce, parser state, and module script credentials mode.

      3. If this returns null, set the script's script to null and abort these substeps; the script is ready.

      4. Fetch the descendants of script (using an empty ancestor list). When this asynchronously completes, set the script's script to the result. At that time, the script is ready.

  21. Then, follow the first of the following options that describes the situation:

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute, and the element has a defer attribute, and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and the element does not have an async attribute
    If the script's type is "module", and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and the element does not have an async attribute

    Add the element to the end of the list of scripts that will execute when the document has finished parsing associated with the Document of the parser that created the element.

    When the script is ready, set the element's "ready to be parser-executed" flag. The parser will handle executing the script.

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute, and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and the element does not have an async attribute

    The element is the pending parsing-blocking script of the Document of the parser that created the element. (There can only be one such script per Document at a time.)

    When the script is ready, set the element's "ready to be parser-executed" flag. The parser will handle executing the script.

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute, and the element does not have an async attribute, and the element does not have the "non-blocking" flag set
    If the script's type is "module", and the element does not have an async attribute, and the element does not have the "non-blocking" flag set

    Add the element to the end of the list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible associated with the node document of the script element at the time the prepare a script algorithm started.

    When the script is ready, run the following steps:

    1. If the element is not now the first element in the list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible to which it was added above, then mark the element as ready but abort these steps without executing the script yet.

    2. Execution: Execute the script block corresponding to the first script element in this list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible.

    3. Remove the first element from this list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible.

    4. If this list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible is still not empty and the first entry has already been marked as ready, then jump back to the step labeled execution.

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute
    If the script's type is "module"

    The element must be added to the set of scripts that will execute as soon as possible of the node document of the script element at the time the prepare a script algorithm started.

    When the script is ready, execute the script block and then remove the element from the set of scripts that will execute as soon as possible.

    If the element does not have a src attribute, and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and either the parser that created the script is an XML parser or it's an HTML parser whose script nesting level is not greater than one, and the Document of the HTML parser or XML parser that created the script element has a style sheet that is blocking scripts

    The element is the pending parsing-blocking script of the Document of the parser that created the element. (There can only be one such script per Document at a time.)

    Set the element's "ready to be parser-executed" flag. The parser will handle executing the script.

    Otherwise
    Immediately execute the script block, even if other scripts are already executing.

The pending parsing-blocking script of a Document is used by the Document's parser(s).

If a script element that blocks a parser gets moved to another Document before it would normally have stopped blocking that parser, it nonetheless continues blocking that parser until the condition that causes it to be blocking the parser no longer applies (e.g. if the script is a pending parsing-blocking script because there was a style sheet that is blocking scripts when it was parsed, but then the script is moved to another Document before the style sheet loads, the script still blocks the parser until the style sheets are all loaded, at which time the script executes and the parser is unblocked).

When the user agent is required to execute a script block, it must run the following steps.

  1. If the element is flagged as "parser-inserted", but the element's node document is not the Document of the parser that created the element, then abort these steps.

  2. If the script's script is null, fire a simple event named error at the element, and abort these steps.

  3. If the script is from an external file, or the script's type is "module", then increment the ignore-destructive-writes counter of the script element's node document. Let neutralized doc be that Document.

  4. Let old script element be the value to which the script element's node document's currentScript object was most recently set.

  5. Switch on the script's type:

    "classic"
    1. If the script element's root is not a shadow root, then set the script element's node document's currentScript attribute to the script element. Otherwise, set it to null.

      This does not use the in a document tree check, as the script element could have been removed from the document prior to execution, and in that scenario currentScript still needs to point to it.

    2. Run the classic script given by the script's script.

    "module"
    1. Set the script element's node document's currentScript attribute to null.

    2. Run the module script given by the script's script.

  6. Set the script element's node document's currentScript attribute to old script element.

  7. Decrement the ignore-destructive-writes counter of neutralized doc, if it was incremented in the earlier step.

  8. If the script is from an external file, then switch on the script's type:

    "classic"
    Fire a simple event named load at the script element.
    "module"
    Queue a task to fire a simple event named load at the script element.
4.12.1.2 Scripting languages

A JavaScript MIME type is a MIME type string that is one of the following and refers to JavaScript: [JAVASCRIPT]

User agents must recognize all JavaScript MIME types.

User agents may support other MIME types for other languages, but must not support other MIME types for the languages in the list above. User agents are not required to support JavaScript. The processing model for languages other than JavaScript is outside the scope of this specification.

The following MIME types (with or without parameters) must not be interpreted as scripting languages:

These types are explicitly listed here because they are poorly-defined types that are nonetheless likely to be used as formats for data blocks, and it would be problematic if they were suddenly to be interpreted as script by a user agent.

When examining types to determine if they represent supported languages, user agents must not ignore MIME parameters. Types are to be compared including all parameters.

For example, types that include the charset parameter will not be recognized as referencing any of the scripting languages listed above.

4.12.1.3 Restrictions for contents of script elements

The easiest and safest way to avoid the rather strange restrictions described in this section is to always escape "<!--" as "<\!--", "<script" as "<\script", and "</script" as "<\/script" when these sequences appear in literals in scripts (e.g. in strings, regular expressions, or comments), and to avoid writing code that uses such constructs in expressions. Doing so avoids the pitfalls that the restrictions in this section are prone to triggering: namely, that, for historical reasons, parsing of script blocks in HTML is a strange and exotic practice that acts unintuitively in the face of these sequences.

The textContent of a script element must match the script production in the following ABNF, the character set for which is Unicode. [ABNF]

script        = outer *( comment-open inner comment-close outer )

outer         = < any string that doesn't contain a substring that matches not-in-outer >
not-in-outer  = comment-open
inner         = < any string that doesn't contain a substring that matches not-in-inner >
not-in-inner  = comment-close / script-open

comment-open  = "<!--"
comment-close = "-->"
script-open   = "<" s c r i p t tag-end

s             =  %x0053 ; U+0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S
s             =/ %x0073 ; U+0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S
c             =  %x0043 ; U+0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C
c             =/ %x0063 ; U+0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C
r             =  %x0052 ; U+0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R
r             =/ %x0072 ; U+0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R
i             =  %x0049 ; U+0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I
i             =/ %x0069 ; U+0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I
p             =  %x0050 ; U+0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P
p             =/ %x0070 ; U+0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P
t             =  %x0054 ; U+0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T
t             =/ %x0074 ; U+0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T

tag-end       =  %x0009 ; U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION (tab)
tag-end       =/ %x000A ; U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
tag-end       =/ %x000C ; U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
tag-end       =/ %x0020 ; U+0020 SPACE
tag-end       =/ %x002F ; U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
tag-end       =/ %x003E ; U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)

When a script element contains script documentation, there are further restrictions on the contents of the element, as described in the section below.

The following script illustrates this issue. Suppose you have a script that contains a string, as in:

var example = 'Consider this string: <!-- <script>';
console.log(example);

If one were to put this string directly in a script block, it would violate the restrictions above:

<script>
  var example = 'Consider this string: <!-- <script>';
  console.log(example);
</script>

The bigger problem, though, and the reason why it would violate those restrictions, is that actually the script would get parsed weirdly: the script block above is not terminated. That is, what looks like a "</script>" end tag in this snippet is actually still part of the script block. The script doesn't execute (since it's not terminated); if it somehow were to execute, as it might if the markup looked as follows, it would fail because the script (highlighted here) is not valid JavaScript:

<script>
  var example = 'Consider this string: <!-- <script>';
  console.log(example);
</script>
<!-- despite appearances, this is actually part of the script still! -->
<script>
 ... // this is the same script block still...
</script>

What is going on here is that for legacy reasons, "<!--" and "<script" strings in script elements in HTML need to be balanced in order for the parser to consider closing the block.

By escaping the problematic strings as mentioned at the top of this section, the problem is avoided entirely:

<script>
  var example = 'Consider this string: <\!-- <\script>';
  console.log(example);
</script>
<!-- this is just a comment between script blocks -->
<script>
 ... // this is a new script block
</script>

It is possible for these sequences to naturally occur in script expressions, as in the following examples:

if (x<!--y) { ... }
if ( player<script ) { ... }

In such cases the characters cannot be escaped, but the expressions can be rewritten so that the sequences don't occur, as in:

if (x < !--y) { ... }
if (!--y > x) { ... }
if (!(--y) > x) { ... }
if (player < script) { ... }
if (script > player) { ... }

Doing this also avoids a different pitfall as well: for related historical reasons, the string "<!--" in classic scripts is actually treated as a line comment start, just like "//".

4.12.1.4 Inline documentation for external scripts

If a script element's src attribute is specified, then the contents of the script element, if any, must be such that the value of the text IDL attribute, which is derived from the element's contents, matches the documentation production in the following ABNF, the character set for which is Unicode. [ABNF]

documentation = *( *( space / tab / comment ) [ line-comment ] newline )
comment       = slash star *( not-star / star not-slash ) 1*star slash
line-comment  = slash slash *not-newline

; characters
tab           = %x0009 ; U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION (tab)
newline       = %x000A ; U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
space         = %x0020 ; U+0020 SPACE
star          = %x002A ; U+002A ASTERISK (*)
slash         = %x002F ; U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
not-newline   = %x0000-0009 / %x000B-10FFFF
                ; a Unicode character other than U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
not-star      = %x0000-0029 / %x002B-10FFFF
                ; a Unicode character other than U+002A ASTERISK (*)
not-slash     = %x0000-002E / %x0030-10FFFF
                ; a Unicode character other than U+002F SOLIDUS (/)

This corresponds to putting the contents of the element in JavaScript comments.

This requirement is in addition to the earlier restrictions on the syntax of contents of script elements.

This allows authors to include documentation, such as license information or API information, inside their documents while still referring to external script files. The syntax is constrained so that authors don't accidentally include what looks like valid script while also providing a src attribute.

<script src="cool-effects.js">
 // create new instances using:
 //    var e = new Effect();
 // start the effect using .play, stop using .stop:
 //    e.play();
 //    e.stop();
</script>
4.12.1.5 Interaction of script elements and XSLT

This section is non-normative.

This specification does not define how XSLT interacts with the script element. However, in the absence of another specification actually defining this, here are some guidelines for implementors, based on existing implementations:

The main distinction between the first two cases and the last case is that the first two operate on Documents and the last operates on a fragment.

4.12.2 The noscript element

Categories:
Metadata content.
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
In a head element of an HTML document, if there are no ancestor noscript elements.
Where phrasing content is expected in HTML documents, if there are no ancestor noscript elements.
Content model:
When scripting is disabled, in a head element: in any order, zero or more link elements, zero or more style elements, and zero or more meta elements.
When scripting is disabled, not in a head element: transparent, but there must be no noscript element descendants.
Otherwise: text that conforms to the requirements given in the prose.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
DOM interface:
Uses HTMLElement.

The noscript element represents nothing if scripting is enabled, and represents its children if scripting is disabled. It is used to present different markup to user agents that support scripting and those that don't support scripting, by affecting how the document is parsed.

When used in HTML documents, the allowed content model is as follows:

In a head element, if scripting is disabled for the noscript element

The noscript element must contain only link, style, and meta elements.

In a head element, if scripting is enabled for the noscript element

The noscript element must contain only text, except that invoking the HTML fragment parsing algorithm with the noscript element as the context element and the text contents as the input must result in a list of nodes that consists only of link, style, and meta elements that would be conforming if they were children of the noscript element, and no parse errors.

Outside of head elements, if scripting is disabled for the noscript element

The noscript element's content model is transparent, with the additional restriction that a noscript element must not have a noscript element as an ancestor (that is, noscript can't be nested).

Outside of head elements, if scripting is enabled for the noscript element

The noscript element must contain only text, except that the text must be such that running the following algorithm results in a conforming document with no noscript elements and no script elements, and such that no step in the algorithm throws an exception or causes an HTML parser to flag a parse error:

  1. Remove every script element from the document.
  2. Make a list of every noscript element in the document. For every noscript element in that list, perform the following steps:
    1. Let s be the child text content of the noscript element.
    2. Set the outerHTML attribute of the noscript element to the value of s. (This, as a side-effect, causes the noscript element to be removed from the document.) [DOMPARSING]

All these contortions are required because, for historical reasons, the noscript element is handled differently by the HTML parser based on whether scripting was enabled or not when the parser was invoked.

The noscript element must not be used in XML documents.

The noscript element is only effective in the HTML syntax, it has no effect in the XHTML syntax. This is because the way it works is by essentially "turning off" the parser when scripts are enabled, so that the contents of the element are treated as pure text and not as real elements. XML does not define a mechanism by which to do this.

The noscript element has no other requirements. In particular, children of the noscript element are not exempt from form submission, scripting, and so forth, even when scripting is enabled for the element.

In the following example, a noscript element is used to provide fallback for a script.

<form action="calcSquare.php">
 <p>
  <label for=x>Number</label>:
  <input id="x" name="x" type="number">
 </p>
 <script>
  var x = document.getElementById('x');
  var output = document.createElement('p');
  output.textContent = 'Type a number; it will be squared right then!';
  x.form.appendChild(output);
  x.form.onsubmit = function () { return false; }
  x.oninput = function () {
    var v = x.valueAsNumber;
    output.textContent = v + ' squared is ' + v * v;
  };
 </script>
 <noscript>
  <input type=submit value="Calculate Square">
 </noscript>
</form>

When script is disabled, a button appears to do the calculation on the server side. When script is enabled, the value is computed on-the-fly instead.

The noscript element is a blunt instrument. Sometimes, scripts might be enabled, but for some reason the page's script might fail. For this reason, it's generally better to avoid using noscript, and to instead design the script to change the page from being a scriptless page to a scripted page on the fly, as in the next example:

<form action="calcSquare.php">
 <p>
  <label for=x>Number</label>:
  <input id="x" name="x" type="number">
 </p>
 <input id="submit" type=submit value="Calculate Square">
 <script>
  var x = document.getElementById('x');
  var output = document.createElement('p');
  output.textContent = 'Type a number; it will be squared right then!';
  x.form.appendChild(output);
  x.form.onsubmit = function () { return false; }
  x.oninput = function () {
    var v = x.valueAsNumber;
    output.textContent = v + ' squared is ' + v * v;
  };
  var submit = document.getElementById('submit');
  submit.parentNode.removeChild(submit);
 </script>
</form>

The above technique is also useful in XHTML, since noscript is not supported in the XHTML syntax.

4.12.3 The template element

Support: Chrome 26+Chrome for Android 51+iOS Safari 8+UC Browser for Android NoneFirefox 22+IE NoneOpera Mini NoneSamsung Internet 4+Android Browser 4.4+Safari 7.1+Edge 13+Opera 15+

Source: caniuse.com

Categories:
Metadata content.
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Script-supporting element.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Where script-supporting elements are expected.
As a child of a colgroup element that doesn't have a span attribute.
Content model:
Nothing.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
DOM interface:
[HTMLConstructor]
interface HTMLTemplateElement : HTMLElement {
  readonly attribute DocumentFragment content;
};

The template element is used to declare fragments of HTML that can be cloned and inserted in the document by script.

In a rendering, the template element represents nothing.

The template contents of a template element are not children of the element itself. Instead, they are stored in a DocumentFragment associated with a different Document without a browsing context so as to avoid the template contents interfering with the main Document. (For example, this avoids form controls from being submitted, scripts from executing, and so forth.) The template contents have no conformance requirements.

For example, consider the following document:

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <title>Homework</title>
 <body>
  <template id="template"><p>Smile!</p></template>
  <script>
   let num = 3;
   const fragment = document.getElementById('template').content.cloneNode(true);
   while (num-- > 1) {
     fragment.firstChild.before(fragment.firstChild.cloneNode(true));
     fragment.firstChild.textContent += fragment.lastChild.textContent;
   }
   document.body.appendChild(fragment);
  </script>
</html>

The p element in the template is not a child of the template in the DOM; it is a child of the DocumentFragment returned by the template element's content IDL attribute.

If the script were to call appendChild() on the template element, that would add a child to the template element (as for any other element); however, doing so is a violation of the template element's content model.

template . content

Returns the template contents (a DocumentFragment).

Each template element has an associated DocumentFragment object that is its template contents. When a template element is created, the user agent must run the following steps to establish the template contents:

  1. Let doc be the template element's node document's appropriate template contents owner document.

  2. Create a DocumentFragment object whose node document is doc and host is the template element.

  3. Set the template element's template contents to the newly created DocumentFragment object.

A Document doc's appropriate template contents owner document is the Document returned by the following algorithm:

  1. If doc is not a Document created by this algorithm, run these substeps:

    1. If doc does not yet have an associated inert template document then run these substeps:

      1. Let new doc be a new Document (that does not have a browsing context). This is "a Document created by this algorithm" for the purposes of the step above.

      2. If doc is an HTML document, mark new doc as an HTML document also.

      3. Let doc's associated inert template document be new doc.

    2. Set doc to doc's associated inert template document.

    Each Document not created by this algorithm thus gets a single Document to act as its proxy for owning the template contents of all its template elements, so that they aren't in a browsing context and thus remain inert (e.g. scripts do not run). Meanwhile, template elements inside Document objects that are created by this algorithm just reuse the same Document owner for their contents.

  2. Return doc.

The adopting steps (with node and oldDocument as parameters) for template elements are the following:

  1. Let doc be node's node document's appropriate template contents owner document.

    node's node document is the Document object that node was just adopted into.

  2. Adopt node's template contents (a DocumentFragment object) into doc.

The content IDL attribute must return the template element's template contents.


The cloning steps for a template element node being cloned to a copy copy must run the following steps:

  1. If the clone children flag is not set in the calling clone algorithm, abort these steps.

  2. Let copied contents be the result of cloning all the children of node's template contents, with document set to copy's template contents's node document, and with the clone children flag set.

  3. Append copied contents to copy's template contents.

In this example, a script populates a table four-column with data from a data structure, using a template to provide the element structure instead of manually generating the structure from markup.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang='en'>
<title>Cat data</title>
<script>
 // Data is hard-coded here, but could come from the server
 var data = [
   { name: 'Pillar', color: 'Ticked Tabby', sex: 'Female (neutered)', legs: 3 },
   { name: 'Hedral', color: 'Tuxedo', sex: 'Male (neutered)', legs: 4 },
 ];
</script>
<table>
 <thead>
  <tr>
   <th>Name <th>Color <th>Sex <th>Legs
 <tbody>
  <template id="row">
   <tr><td><td><td><td>
  </template>
</table>
<script>
 var template = document.querySelector('#row');
 for (var i = 0; i < data.length; i += 1) {
   var cat = data[i];
   var clone = template.content.cloneNode(true);
   var cells = clone.querySelectorAll('td');
   cells[0].textContent = cat.name;
   cells[1].textContent = cat.color;
   cells[2].textContent = cat.sex;
   cells[3].textContent = cat.legs;
   template.parentNode.appendChild(clone);
 }
</script>

This example uses cloneNode() on the template's contents; it could equivalently have used document.importNode(), which does the same thing. The only difference between these two APIs is when the node document is updated: with cloneNode() it is updated when the nodes are appended with appendChild(), with document.importNode() it is updated when the nodes are cloned.

4.12.3.1 Interaction of template elements with XSLT and XPath

This section is non-normative.

This specification does not define how XSLT and XPath interact with the template element. However, in the absence of another specification actually defining this, here are some guidelines for implementors, which are intended to be consistent with other processing described in this specification:

4.12.4 The slot element

Categories:
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
name — Name of shadow tree slot
DOM interface:
[HTMLConstructor]
interface HTMLSlotElement : HTMLElement {
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString name;
  sequence<Node> assignedNodes(optional AssignedNodesOptions options);
};

dictionary AssignedNodesOptions {
  boolean flatten = false;
};

The slot element defines a slot. It is typically used in a shadow tree. A slot element represents its assigned nodes, if any, and its contents otherwise.

The name content attribute may contain any string value. It represents a slot's name.

slot . name
Can be used to get and set slot's name.
slot . assignedNodes()
Returns slot's assigned nodes.
slot . assignedNodes({ flatten: true })
Returns slot's assigned nodes, if any, and slot's children otherwise, and does the same for any slot elements encountered therein, recursively, until there are no slot elements left.

The name IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

The assignedNodes(options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If the value of options's flatten member is false, then return this element's assigned nodes.

  2. Return the result of finding flattened slotables with this element.

4.12.5 The canvas element

Support: Chrome 4+Chrome for Android 51+iOS Safari 3.2+UC Browser for Android 9.9+Firefox 3.6+IE 9+Opera Mini (limited) all+Samsung Internet 4+Android Browser 3+Safari 4+Edge 12+Opera 9+

Source: caniuse.com

Categories:
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Embedded content.
Palpable content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent, but with no interactive content descendants except for a elements, img elements with usemap attributes, button elements, input elements whose type attribute are in the Checkbox or Radio Button states, input elements that are buttons, select elements with a multiple attribute or a display size greater than 1, and elements that would not be interactive content except for having the tabindex attribute specified.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
width — Horizontal dimension
height — Vertical dimension
DOM interface:
typedef (CanvasRenderingContext2D or WebGLRenderingContext) RenderingContext;

[HTMLConstructor]
interface HTMLCanvasElement : HTMLElement {
  [CEReactions] attribute unsigned long width;
  [CEReactions] attribute unsigned long height;

  RenderingContext? getContext(DOMString contextId, any... arguments);

  USVString toDataURL(optional DOMString type, optional any quality);
  void toBlob(BlobCallback _callback, optional DOMString type, optional any quality);
};

callback BlobCallback = void (Blob? blob);

The canvas element provides scripts with a resolution-dependent bitmap canvas, which can be used for rendering graphs, game graphics, art, or other visual images on the fly.

Authors should not use the canvas element in a document when a more suitable element is available. For example, it is inappropriate to use a canvas element to render a page heading: if the desired presentation of the heading is graphically intense, it should be marked up using appropriate elements (typically h1) and then styled using CSS and supporting technologies such as Web Components.

When authors use the canvas element, they must also provide content that, when presented to the user, conveys essentially the same function or purpose as the canvas's bitmap. This content may be placed as content of the canvas element. The contents of the canvas element, if any, are the element's fallback content.


In interactive visual media, if scripting is enabled for the canvas element, and if support for canvas elements has been enabled, the canvas element represents embedded content consisting of a dynamically created image, the element's bitmap.

In non-interactive, static, visual media, if the canvas element has been previously associated with a rendering context (e.g. if the page was viewed in an interactive visual medium and is now being printed, or if some script that ran during the page layout process painted on the element), then the canvas element represents embedded content with the element's current bitmap and size. Otherwise, the element represents its fallback content instead.

In non-visual media, and in visual media if scripting is disabled for the canvas element or if support for canvas elements has been disabled, the canvas element represents its fallback content instead.

When a canvas element represents embedded content, the user can still focus descendants of the canvas element (in the fallback content). When an element is focused, it is the target of keyboard interaction events (even though the element itself is not visible). This allows authors to make an interactive canvas keyboard-accessible: authors should have a one-to-one mapping of interactive regions to focusable areas in the fallback content. (Focus has no effect on mouse interaction events.) [UIEVENTS]

An element whose nearest canvas element ancestor is being rendered and represents embedded content is an element that is being used as relevant canvas fallback content.


The canvas element has two attributes to control the size of the element's bitmap: width and height. These attributes, when specified, must have values that are valid non-negative integers. The rules for parsing non-negative integers must be used to obtain their numeric values. If an attribute is missing, or if parsing its value returns an error, then the default value must be used instead. The width attribute defaults to 300, and the height attribute defaults to 150.

The intrinsic dimensions of the canvas element when it represents embedded content are equal to the dimensions of the element's bitmap.

The user agent must use a square pixel density consisting of one pixel of image data per coordinate space unit for the bitmaps of a canvas and its rendering contexts.

A canvas element can be sized arbitrarily by a style sheet, its bitmap is then subject to the 'object-fit' CSS property.


The bitmaps of canvas elements, the bitmaps of ImageBitmap objects, as well as some of the bitmaps of rendering contexts, such as those described in the sections on the CanvasRenderingContext2D and ImageBitmapRenderingContext objects below, have an origin-clean flag, which can be set to true or false. Initially, when the canvas element or ImageBitmap object is created, its bitmap's origin-clean flag must be set to true.

A canvas bitmap can also have a hit region list, as described in the CanvasRenderingContext2D section below.

A canvas element can have a rendering context bound to it. Initially, it does not have a bound rendering context. To keep track of whether it has a rendering context or not, and what kind of rendering context it is, a canvas also has a canvas context mode, which is initially none but can be changed to either 2d, bitmaprenderer, or webgl by algorithms defined in this specification.

When its canvas context mode is none, a canvas element has no rendering context, and its bitmap must be fully transparent black with an intrinsic width equal to the numeric value of the element's width attribute and an intrinsic height equal to the numeric value of the element's height attribute, those values being interpreted in CSS pixels, and being updated as the attributes are set, changed, or removed.

When a canvas element represents embedded content, it provides a paint source whose width is the element's intrinsic width, whose height is the element's intrinsic height, and whose appearance is the element's bitmap.

Whenever the width and height content attributes are set, removed, changed, or redundantly set to the value they already have, if the canvas context mode is 2d, the user agent must set bitmap dimensions to the numeric values of the width and height content attributes.

The width and height IDL attributes must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name, with the same defaults.


context = canvas . getContext(contextId [, ... ] )

Returns an object that exposes an API for drawing on the canvas. The first argument specifies the desired API, either "2d", "bitmaprenderer" or "webgl". Subsequent arguments are handled by that API.

This specification defines the "2d" and "bitmaprenderer" contexts below. There is also a specification that defines a "webgl" context. [WEBGL]

Returns null if the given context ID is not supported, if the canvas has already been initialized with the other context type (e.g. trying to get a "2d" context after getting a "webgl" context).

The getContext(contextId, arguments...) method of the canvas element, when invoked, must run the steps in the cell of the following table whose column header describes the canvas element's canvas context mode and whose row header describes the method's first argument.

none 2d bitmaprenderer webgl
"2d" Follow the 2D context creation algorithm defined in the section below, passing it the canvas element and the method's arguments..., to obtain a CanvasRenderingContext2D object; if this does not throw an exception, then set the canvas element's context mode to 2d, and return the CanvasRenderingContext2D object. Return the same object as was returned the last time the method was invoked with this same first argument. Return null. Return null.
"bitmaprenderer" Follow the ImageBitmapRenderingContext creation algorithm defined in the section below, passing it the canvas element and the method's arguments..., to obtain an ImageBitmapRenderingContext object; then set the canvas element's context mode to bitmaprenderer, and return the ImageBitmapRenderingContext object. Return null. Return the same object as was returned the last time the method was invoked with this same first argument. Return null.
"webgl", if the user agent supports the WebGL feature in its current configuration Follow the instructions given in the WebGL specification's Context Creation section to obtain either a WebGLRenderingContext or null; if the returned value is null, then return null and abort these steps, otherwise, set the canvas element's context mode to webgl, and return the WebGLRenderingContext object [WEBGL] Return null. Return null. Return the same object as was returned the last time the method was invoked with this same first argument.
A vendor-specific extension* Behave as defined for the extension. Behave as defined for the extension. Behave as defined for the extension. Behave as defined for the extension.
An unsupported value† Return null. Return null. Return null. Return null.

* Vendors may define experimental contexts using the syntax vendorname-context, for example, moz-3d.

† For example, the "webgl" value in the case of a user agent having exhausted the graphics hardware's abilities and having no software fallback implementation.


url = canvas . toDataURL( [ type [, quality ] ] )

Returns a data: URL for the image in the canvas.

The first argument, if provided, controls the type of the image to be returned (e.g. PNG or JPEG). The default is "image/png"; that type is also used if the given type isn't supported. The second argument applies if the type is an image format that supports variable quality (such as "image/jpeg"), and is a number in the range 0.0 to 1.0 inclusive indicating the desired quality level for the resulting image.

When trying to use types other than "image/png", authors can check if the image was really returned in the requested format by checking to see if the returned string starts with one of the exact strings "data:image/png," or "data:image/png;". If it does, the image is PNG, and thus the requested type was not supported. (The one exception to this is if the canvas has either no height or no width, in which case the result might simply be "data:,".)

canvas . toBlob(callback [, type [, quality ] ] )

Creates a Blob object representing a file containing the image in the canvas, and invokes a callback with a handle to that object.

The second argument, if provided, controls the type of the image to be returned (e.g. PNG or JPEG). The default is "image/png"; that type is also used if the given type isn't supported. The third argument applies if the type is an image format that supports variable quality (such as "image/jpeg"), and is a number in the range 0.0 to 1.0 inclusive indicating the desired quality level for the resulting image.

The toDataURL(type, quality) method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. If this canvas element's bitmap's origin-clean flag is set to false, throw a "SecurityError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  2. If this canvas element's bitmap has no pixels (i.e. either its horizontal dimension or its vertical dimension is zero) then return the string "data:," and abort these steps. (This is the shortest data: URL; it represents the empty string in a text/plain resource.)

  3. Let file be a serialization of this canvas element's bitmap as a file, passing type and quality if they were given.

  4. Return a data: URL representing file. [RFC2397]

The toBlob(callback, type, quality) method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. If the canvas element's bitmap's origin-clean flag is set to false, throw a "SecurityError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  2. If the canvas element's bitmap has no pixels (i.e. either its horizontal dimension or its vertical dimension is zero) then let result be null.

    Otherwise, let result be a Blob object representing a serialization of the canvas element's bitmap as a file, passing type and quality if they were given. [FILEAPI]

  3. Return, but continue running these steps in parallel.

  4. Queue a task to invoke the BlobCallback callback with result as its argument. The task source for this task is the canvas blob serialization task source.

4.12.5.1 The 2D rendering context

Spec bugs: 18220

typedef (HTMLImageElement or
         SVGImageElement) HTMLOrSVGImageElement;

typedef (HTMLOrSVGImageElement or
         HTMLVideoElement or
         HTMLCanvasElement or
         ImageBitmap) CanvasImageSource;

enum CanvasFillRule { "nonzero", "evenodd" };

dictionary CanvasRenderingContext2DSettings {
  boolean alpha = true;
};

enum ImageSmoothingQuality { "low", "medium", "high" };

interface CanvasRenderingContext2D {
  // back-reference to the canvas
  readonly attribute HTMLCanvasElement canvas;
};
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasState;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasTransform;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasCompositing;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasImageSmoothing;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasFillStrokeStyles;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasShadowStyles;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasFilters;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasRect;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasDrawPath;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasUserInterface;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasText;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasDrawImage;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasHitRegion;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasImageData;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasPathDrawingStyles;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasTextDrawingStyles;
CanvasRenderingContext2D implements CanvasPath;

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasState {
  // state
  void save(); // push state on state stack
  void restore(); // pop state stack and restore state
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasTransform {
  // transformations (default transform is the identity matrix)
  void scale(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
  void rotate(unrestricted double angle);
  void translate(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
  void transform(unrestricted double a, unrestricted double b, unrestricted double c, unrestricted double d, unrestricted double e, unrestricted double f);

  [NewObject] DOMMatrix getTransform();
  void setTransform(unrestricted double a, unrestricted double b, unrestricted double c, unrestricted double d, unrestricted double e, unrestricted double f);
  void setTransform(optional DOMMatrixInit transform);
  void resetTransform();

};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasCompositing {
  // compositing
  attribute unrestricted double globalAlpha; // (default 1.0)
  attribute DOMString globalCompositeOperation; // (default source-over)
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasImageSmoothing {
  // image smoothing
  attribute boolean imageSmoothingEnabled; // (default true)
  attribute ImageSmoothingQuality imageSmoothingQuality; // (default low)

};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasFillStrokeStyles {
  // colors and styles (see also the CanvasPathDrawingStyles and CanvasTextDrawingStyles interfaces)
  attribute (DOMString or CanvasGradient or CanvasPattern) strokeStyle; // (default black)
  attribute (DOMString or CanvasGradient or CanvasPattern) fillStyle; // (default black)
  CanvasGradient createLinearGradient(double x0, double y0, double x1, double y1);
  CanvasGradient createRadialGradient(double x0, double y0, double r0, double x1, double y1, double r1);
  CanvasPattern? createPattern(CanvasImageSource image, [TreatNullAs=EmptyString] DOMString repetition);

};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasShadowStyles {
  // shadows
  attribute unrestricted double shadowOffsetX; // (default 0)
  attribute unrestricted double shadowOffsetY; // (default 0)
  attribute unrestricted double shadowBlur; // (default 0)
  attribute DOMString shadowColor; // (default transparent black)
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasFilters {
  // filters
  attribute DOMString filter; // (default "none")
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasRect {
  // rects
  void clearRect(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, unrestricted double w, unrestricted double h);
  void fillRect(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, unrestricted double w, unrestricted double h);
  void strokeRect(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, unrestricted double w, unrestricted double h);
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasDrawPath {
  // path API (see also CanvasPath)
  void beginPath();
  void fill(optional CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero");
  void fill(Path2D path, optional CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero");
  void stroke();
  void stroke(Path2D path);
  void clip(optional CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero");
  void clip(Path2D path, optional CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero");
  void resetClip();
  boolean isPointInPath(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, optional CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero");
  boolean isPointInPath(Path2D path, unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, optional CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero");
  boolean isPointInStroke(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
  boolean isPointInStroke(Path2D path, unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasUserInterface {
  void drawFocusIfNeeded(Element element);
  void drawFocusIfNeeded(Path2D path, Element element);
  void scrollPathIntoView();
  void scrollPathIntoView(Path2D path);
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasText {
  // text (see also the CanvasPathDrawingStyles and CanvasTextDrawingStyles interfaces)
  void fillText(DOMString text, unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, optional unrestricted double maxWidth);
  void strokeText(DOMString text, unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, optional unrestricted double maxWidth);
  TextMetrics measureText(DOMString text);
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasDrawImage {
  // drawing images
  void drawImage(CanvasImageSource image, unrestricted double dx, unrestricted double dy);
  void drawImage(CanvasImageSource image, unrestricted double dx, unrestricted double dy, unrestricted double dw, unrestricted double dh);
  void drawImage(CanvasImageSource image, unrestricted double sx, unrestricted double sy, unrestricted double sw, unrestricted double sh, unrestricted double dx, unrestricted double dy, unrestricted double dw, unrestricted double dh);
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasHitRegion {
  // hit regions
  void addHitRegion(optional HitRegionOptions options);
  void removeHitRegion(DOMString id);
  void clearHitRegions();
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasImageData {
  // pixel manipulation
  ImageData createImageData(double sw, double sh);
  ImageData createImageData(ImageData imagedata);
  ImageData getImageData(double sx, double sy, double sw, double sh);
  void putImageData(ImageData imagedata, double dx, double dy);
  void putImageData(ImageData imagedata, double dx, double dy, double dirtyX, double dirtyY, double dirtyWidth, double dirtyHeight);
};

enum CanvasLineCap { "butt", "round", "square" };
enum CanvasLineJoin { "round", "bevel", "miter"};
enum CanvasTextAlign { "start", "end", "left", "right", "center" };
enum CanvasTextBaseline { "top", "hanging", "middle", "alphabetic", "ideographic", "bottom" };
enum CanvasDirection { "ltr", "rtl", "inherit" };

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasPathDrawingStyles {
  // line caps/joins
  attribute unrestricted double lineWidth; // (default 1)
  attribute CanvasLineCap lineCap; // (default "butt")
  attribute CanvasLineJoin lineJoin; // (default "miter")
  attribute unrestricted double miterLimit; // (default 10)

  // dashed lines
  void setLineDash(sequence<unrestricted double> segments); // default empty
  sequence<unrestricted double> getLineDash();
  attribute unrestricted double lineDashOffset;
};

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface CanvasTextDrawingStyles {
  // text
  attribute DOMString font; // (default 10px sans-serif)
  attribute CanvasTextAlign textAlign; // (default: "start")
  attribute CanvasTextBaseline textBaseline; // (default: "alphabetic")
  attribute CanvasDirection direction; // (default: "inherit")
};

[NoInterfaceObject, Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface CanvasPath {
  // shared path API methods
  void closePath();
  void moveTo(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
  void lineTo(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
  void quadraticCurveTo(unrestricted double cpx, unrestricted double cpy, unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
  void bezierCurveTo(unrestricted double cp1x, unrestricted double cp1y, unrestricted double cp2x, unrestricted double cp2y, unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y);
  void arcTo(unrestricted double x1, unrestricted double y1, unrestricted double x2, unrestricted double y2, unrestricted double radius); 
  void arcTo(unrestricted double x1, unrestricted double y1, unrestricted double x2, unrestricted double y2, unrestricted double radiusX, unrestricted double radiusY, unrestricted double rotation); 
  void rect(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, unrestricted double w, unrestricted double h);
  void arc(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, unrestricted double radius, unrestricted double startAngle, unrestricted double endAngle, optional boolean anticlockwise = false); 
  void ellipse(unrestricted double x, unrestricted double y, unrestricted double radiusX, unrestricted double radiusY, unrestricted double rotation, unrestricted double startAngle, unrestricted double endAngle, optional boolean anticlockwise = false); 
};

interface CanvasGradient {
  // opaque object
  void addColorStop(double offset, DOMString color);
};

interface CanvasPattern {
  // opaque object
  void setTransform(optional DOMMatrixInit transform);
};

interface TextMetrics {
  // x-direction
  readonly attribute double width; // advance width
  readonly attribute double actualBoundingBoxLeft;
  readonly attribute double actualBoundingBoxRight;

  // y-direction
  readonly attribute double fontBoundingBoxAscent;
  readonly attribute double fontBoundingBoxDescent;
  readonly attribute double actualBoundingBoxAscent;
  readonly attribute double actualBoundingBoxDescent;
  readonly attribute double emHeightAscent;
  readonly attribute double emHeightDescent;
  readonly attribute double hangingBaseline;
  readonly attribute double alphabeticBaseline;
  readonly attribute double ideographicBaseline;
};

dictionary HitRegionOptions {
  Path2D? path = null;
  CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero";
  DOMString id = ""; 
  DOMString? parentID = null;
  DOMString cursor = "inherit";
  // for control-backed regions:
  Element? control = null;
  // for unbacked regions:
  DOMString? label = null;
  DOMString? role = null;
};

[Constructor(unsigned long sw, unsigned long sh),
 Constructor(Uint8ClampedArray data, unsigned long sw, optional unsigned long sh),
 Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface ImageData {
  readonly attribute unsigned long width;
  readonly attribute unsigned long height;
  readonly attribute Uint8ClampedArray data;
};

[Constructor,
 Constructor(Path2D path),
 Constructor(sequence<Path2D> paths, optional CanvasFillRule fillRule = "nonzero"),
 Constructor(DOMString d), Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface Path2D {
  void addPath(Path2D path, optional DOMMatrixInit transform);
};
Path2D implements CanvasPath;

To maintain compatibility with existing Web content, user agents should enumerate methods defined in CanvasUserInterface immediately after the stroke(Path2D) method on CanvasRenderingContext2D objects.

context = canvas . getContext('2d' [, { [ alpha: false ] } ] )

Returns a CanvasRenderingContext2D object that is permanently bound to a particular canvas element.

If the alpha setting is provided and set to false, then the canvas is forced to always be opaque.

context . canvas

Returns the canvas element.

A CanvasRenderingContext2D object has an output bitmap that is initialized when the object is created.

The output bitmap has an origin-clean flag, which can be set to true or false. Initially, when one of these bitmaps is created, its origin-clean flag must be set to true.

The CanvasRenderingContext2D object also has a hit region list, which is described in a later section. Initially, this list is empty.

The CanvasRenderingContext2D object also has an alpha flag, which can be set to true or false. Initially, when the context is created, its alpha flag must be set to true. When a CanvasRenderingContext2D object has its alpha flag set to false, then its alpha channel must be fixed to 1.0 (fully opaque) for all pixels, and attempts to change the alpha component of any pixel must be silently ignored.

Thus, the bitmap of such a context starts off as fully-opaque black instead of fully-transparent black; clearRect() always results in fully-opaque black pixels, every fourth byte from getImageData() is always 255, the putImageData() method effectively ignores every fourth byte in its input, and so on. However, the alpha component of styles and images drawn onto the canvas are still honoured up to the point where they would impact the output bitmap's alpha channel; for instance, drawing a 50% transparent white square on a freshly created output bitmap with its alpha flag set to false will result in a fully-opaque gray square.


The CanvasRenderingContext2D 2D rendering context represents a flat linear Cartesian surface whose origin (0,0) is at the top left corner, with the coordinate space having x values increasing when going right, and y values increasing when going down. The x-coordinate of the right-most edge is equal to the width of the rendering context's output bitmap in CSS pixels; similarly, the y-coordinate of the bottom-most edge is equal to the height of the rendering context's output bitmap in CSS pixels.

The size of the coordinate space does not necessarily represent the size of the actual bitmaps that the user agent will use internally or during rendering. On high-definition displays, for instance, the user agent may internally use bitmaps with two device pixels per unit in the coordinate space, so that the rendering remains at high quality throughout. Anti-aliasing can similarly be implemented using over-sampling with bitmaps of a higher resolution than the final image on the display.


The 2D context creation algorithm, which is passed a target (a canvas element) and optionally some arguments, consists of running the following steps:

  1. If the algorithm was passed some arguments, let arg be the first such argument. Otherwise, let arg be undefined.

  2. Let settings be the result of coercing the arg context arguments for 2D.

  3. Create a new CanvasRenderingContext2D object.

  4. Initialize its canvas attribute to point to target.

  5. Let the new CanvasRenderingContext2D object's output bitmap be the same bitmap as target's bitmap (so that they are shared).

  6. Set bitmap dimensions to the numeric values of target's width and height content attributes.

  7. Process each of the members of settings as follows:

    alpha
    If false, then set the target's bitmap's alpha flag to false.
  8. Return the new CanvasRenderingContext2D object.



When a user agent is required to coerce context arguments for 2D, it must run the following steps:

  1. Let input be the argument to coerce.

  2. Let jsval be the result of converting input to a JavaScript value. If this throws an exception, then propagate the exception and abort these steps.

  3. Let dict be the result of converting jsval to the dictionary type CanvasRenderingContext2DSettings. If this throws an exception, then propagate the exception and abort these steps.

  4. Return dict.


When the user agent is to set bitmap dimensions to width and height, it must run the following steps:

  1. Reset the rendering context to its default state.

  2. Clear the rendering context's hit region list.

  3. Resize the output bitmap to the new width and height and clear it to fully transparent black.

  4. Let canvas be the canvas element to which the rendering context's canvas attribute was initialized.

  5. If the numeric value of canvas's width content attribute differs from width, then set canvas's width content attribute to the shortest possible string representing width as a valid non-negative integer.

  6. If the numeric value of canvas's height content attribute differs from height, then set canvas's height content attribute to the shortest possible string representing height as a valid non-negative integer.

Only one square appears to be drawn in the following example:

// canvas is a reference to a <canvas> element
var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
context.fillRect(0,0,50,50);
canvas.setAttribute('width', '300'); // clears the canvas
context.fillRect(0,100,50,50);
canvas.width = canvas.width; // clears the canvas
context.fillRect(100,0,50,50); // only this square remains

When the user agent is to run the unbinding steps for a rendering context, it must run the following steps:

  1. Reset the rendering context to its default state.

  2. Clear the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's hit region list.

  3. Clear the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's output bitmap to a transparent black.

  4. Set the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's origin-clean flag to true.

  5. Let the CanvasRenderingContext2D object have no output bitmap.

When the user agent is to run the binding steps to bind the rendering context to the canvas element target, it must run the following steps:

  1. Reset the rendering context to its default state.

  2. Clear the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's hit region list.

  3. Resize the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's output bitmap to the dimensions of target's bitmap and clear it to fully transparent black.

  4. Set the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's origin-clean flag to true.

  5. Let the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's output bitmap be target's bitmap.


The canvas attribute must return the value it was initialized to when the object was created.


Except where otherwise specified, for the 2D context interface, any method call with a numeric argument whose value is infinite or a NaN value must be ignored.

Whenever the CSS value currentColor is used as a color in the CanvasRenderingContext2D API, the computed value of the currentColor keyword is the computed value of the 'color' property on the canvas element at the time that the color is specified (e.g. when the appropriate attribute is set, or when the method is called; not when the color is rendered or otherwise used). If the computed value of the 'color' property is undefined for a particular case (e.g. because the element is not in a document), then the computed value of the 'color' property for the purposes of determining the computed value of the currentColor keyword is fully opaque black. [CSSCOLOR]

In the case of addColorStop() on CanvasGradient, the "computed value of the 'color' property" for the purposes of determining the computed value of the currentColor keyword is always fully opaque black (there is no associated element). [CSSCOLOR]

This is because CanvasGradient objects are canvas-neutral — a CanvasGradient object created by one canvas can be used by another, and there is therefore no way to know which is the "element in question" at the time that the color is specified.

Similar concerns exist with font-related properties; the rules for those are described in detail in the relevant section below.


The CanvasFillRule enumeration is used to select the fill rule algorithm by which to determine if a point is inside or outside a path.

The value "nonzero" value indicates the non-zero winding rule, wherein a point is considered to be outside a shape if the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that point crosses the shape's path going in one direction is equal to the number of times it crosses the path going in the other direction.

The "evenodd" value indicates the even-odd rule, wherein a point is considered to be outside a shape if the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that point crosses the shape's path is even.

If a point is not outside a shape, it is inside the shape.


The ImageSmoothingQuality enumeration is used to express a preference for the interpolation quality to use when smoothing images.

The "low" value indicates a preference for a low level of image interpolation quality. Low-quality image interpolation may be more computationally efficient than higher settings.

The "medium" value indicates a preference for a medium level of image interpolation quality.

The "high" value indicates a preference for a high level of image interpolation quality. High-quality image interpolation may be more computationally expensive than lower settings.

Bilinear scaling is an example of a relatively fast, lower-quality image-smoothing algorithm. Bicubic or Lanczos scaling are examples of image-smoothing algorithms that produce higher-quality output. This specification does not mandate that specific interpolation algorithms be used.

4.12.5.1.1 Implementation notes

This section is non-normative.

The output bitmap, when it is not directly displayed by the user agent, implementations can, instead of updating this bitmap, merely remember the sequence of drawing operations that have been applied to it until such time as the bitmap's actual data is needed (for example because of a call to drawImage(), or the createImageBitmap() factory method). In many cases, this will be more memory efficient.

The bitmap of a canvas element is the one bitmap that's pretty much always going to be needed in practice. The output bitmap of a rendering context, when it has one, is always just an alias to a canvas element's bitmap.

Additional bitmaps are sometimes needed, e.g. to enable fast drawing when the canvas is being painted at a different size than its intrinsic size, or to enable double buffering so that graphics updates, like page scrolling for example, can be processed concurrently while canvas draw commands are being executed.

4.12.5.1.2 The canvas state

Objects that implement the CanvasState interface maintain a stack of drawing states. Drawing states consist of:

The current default path and the rendering context's bitmaps are not part of the drawing state. The current default path is persistent, and can only be reset using the beginPath() method. The bitmaps depend on whether and how the rendering context is bound to a canvas element.

context . save()

Pushes the current state onto the stack.

context . restore()

Pops the top state on the stack, restoring the context to that state.

The save() method must push a copy of the current drawing state onto the drawing state stack.

The restore() method must pop the top entry in the drawing state stack, and reset the drawing state it describes. If there is no saved state, the method must do nothing.

When the user agent is to reset the rendering context to its default state, it must clear the drawing state stack and everything that drawing state consists of to initial values.

4.12.5.1.3 Line styles
context . lineWidth [ = value ]
styles . lineWidth [ = value ]

Returns the current line width.

Can be set, to change the line width. Values that are not finite values greater than zero are ignored.

context . lineCap [ = value ]
styles . lineCap [ = value ]

Returns the current line cap style.

Can be set, to change the line cap style.

The possible line cap styles are "butt", "round", and "square". Other values are ignored.

context . lineJoin [ = value ]
styles . lineJoin [ = value ]

Returns the current line join style.

Can be set, to change the line join style.

The possible line join styles are "bevel", "round", and "miter". Other values are ignored.

context . miterLimit [ = value ]
styles . miterLimit [ = value ]

Returns the current miter limit ratio.

Can be set, to change the miter limit ratio. Values that are not finite values greater than zero are ignored.

context . setLineDash(segments)
styles . setLineDash(segments)

Sets the current line dash pattern (as used when stroking). The argument is a list of distances for which to alternately have the line on and the line off.

segments = context . getLineDash()
segments = styles . getLineDash()

Returns a copy of the current line dash pattern. The array returned will always have an even number of entries (i.e. the pattern is normalized).

context . lineDashOffset
styles . lineDashOffset

Returns the phase offset (in the same units as the line dash pattern).

Can be set, to change the phase offset. Values that are not finite values are ignored.

Objects that implement the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface have attributes and methods (defined in this section) that control how lines are treated by the object.

The lineWidth attribute gives the width of lines, in coordinate space units. On getting, it must return the current value. On setting, zero, negative, infinite, and NaN values must be ignored, leaving the value unchanged; other values must change the current value to the new value.

When the object implementing the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface is created, the lineWidth attribute must initially have the value 1.0.


The lineCap attribute defines the type of endings that UAs will place on the end of lines. The three valid values are "butt", "round", and "square".

On getting, it must return the current value. On setting, the current value must be changed to the new value.

When the object implementing the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface is created, the lineCap attribute must initially have the value "butt".


The lineJoin attribute defines the type of corners that UAs will place where two lines meet. The three valid values are "bevel", "round", and "miter".

On getting, it must return the current value. On setting, the current value must be changed to the new value.

When the object implementing the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface is created, the lineJoin attribute must initially have the value "miter".


When the lineJoin attribute has the value "miter", strokes use the miter limit ratio to decide how to render joins. The miter limit ratio can be explicitly set using the miterLimit attribute. On getting, it must return the current value. On setting, zero, negative, infinite, and NaN values must be ignored, leaving the value unchanged; other values must change the current value to the new value.

When the object implementing the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface is created, the miterLimit attribute must initially have the value 10.0.


Each CanvasPathDrawingStyles object has a dash list, which is either empty or consists of an even number of non-negative numbers. Initially, the dash list must be empty.

When the setLineDash() method is invoked, it must run the following steps:

  1. Let a be the argument.

  2. If any value in a is not finite (e.g. an Infinity or a NaN value), or if any value is negative (less than zero), then abort these steps (without throwing an exception; user agents could show a message on a developer console, though, as that would be helpful for debugging).

  3. If the number of elements in a is odd, then let a be the concatenation of two copies of a.

  4. Let the object's dash list be a.

When the getLineDash() method is invoked, it must return a sequence whose values are the values of the object's dash list, in the same order.

It is sometimes useful to change the "phase" of the dash pattern, e.g. to achieve a "marching ants" effect. The phase can be set using the lineDashOffset attribute. On getting, it must return the current value. On setting, infinite and NaN values must be ignored, leaving the value unchanged; other values must change the current value to the new value.

When the object implementing the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface is created, the lineDashOffset attribute must initially have the value 0.0.


When a user agent is to trace a path, given an object style that implements the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface, it must run the following algorithm. This algorithm returns a new path.

  1. Let path be a copy of the path being traced.

  2. Prune all zero-length line segments from path.

  3. Remove from path any subpaths containing no lines (i.e. subpaths with just one point).

  4. Replace each point in each subpath of path other than the first point and the last point of each subpath by a join that joins the line leading to that point to the line leading out of that point, such that the subpaths all consist of two points (a starting point with a line leading out of it, and an ending point with a line leading into it), one or more lines (connecting the points and the joins), and zero or more joins (each connecting one line to another), connected together such that each subpath is a series of one or more lines with a join between each one and a point on each end.

  5. Add a straight closing line to each closed subpath in path connecting the last point and the first point of that subpath; change the last point to a join (from the previously last line to the newly added closing line), and change the first point to a join (from the newly added closing line to the first line).

  6. If the styles dash list is empty, jump to the step labeled convert.

  7. Let pattern width be the concatenation of all the entries of the styles dash list, in coordinate space units.

  8. For each subpath subpath in path, run the following substeps. These substeps mutate the subpaths in path in vivo.

    1. Let subpath width be the length of all the lines of subpath, in coordinate space units.

    2. Let offset be the value of the styles lineDashOffset, in coordinate space units.

    3. While offset is greater than pattern width, decrement it by pattern width.

      While offset is less than zero, increment it by pattern width.

    4. Define L to be a linear coordinate line defined along all lines in subpath, such that the start of the first line in the subpath is defined as coordinate 0, and the end of the last line in the subpath is defined as coordinate subpath width.

    5. Let position be zero minus offset.

    6. Let index be 0.

    7. Let current state be off (the other states being on and zero-on).

    8. Dash on: Let segment length be the value of the styles dash list's indexth entry.

    9. Increment position by segment length.

    10. If position is greater than subpath width, then end these substeps for this subpath and start them again for the next subpath; if there are no more subpaths, then jump to the step labeled convert instead.

    11. If segment length is non-zero, let current state be on.

    12. Increment index by one.

    13. Dash off: Let segment length be the value of the styles dash list's indexth entry.

    14. Let start be the offset position on L.

    15. Increment position by segment length.

    16. If position is less than zero, then jump to the step labeled post-cut.

    17. If start is less than zero, then let start be zero.

    18. If position is greater than subpath width, then let end be the offset subpath width on L. Otherwise, let end be the offset position on L.

    19. Jump to the first appropriate step:

      If segment length is zero and current state is off

      Do nothing, just continue to the next step.

      If current state is off

      Cut the line on which end finds itself short at end and place a point there, cutting the subpath that it was in in two; remove all line segments, joins, points, and subpaths that are between start and end; and finally place a single point at start with no lines connecting to it.

      The point has a directionality for the purposes of drawing line caps (see below). The directionality is the direction that the original line had at that point (i.e. when L was defined above).

      Otherwise

      Cut the line on which start finds itself into two at start and place a point there, cutting the subpath that it was in in two, and similarly cut the line on which end finds itself short at end and place a point there, cutting the subpath that it was in in two, and then remove all line segments, joins, points, and subpaths that are between start and end.

      If start and end are the same point, then this results in just the line being cut in two and two points being inserted there, with nothing being removed, unless a join also happens to be at that point, in which case the join must be removed.

    20. Post-cut: If position is greater than subpath width, then jump to the step labeled convert.

    21. If segment length is greater than zero, let positioned-at-on-dash be false.

    22. Increment index by one. If it is equal to the number of entries in the styles dash list, then let index be 0.

    23. Return to the step labeled dash on.

  9. Convert: This is the step that converts the path to a new path that represents its stroke.

    Create a new path that describes the edge of the areas that would be covered if a straight line of length equal to the styles lineWidth was swept along each subpath in path while being kept at an angle such that the line is orthogonal to the path being swept, replacing each point with the end cap necessary to satisfy the styles lineCap attribute as described previously and elaborated below, and replacing each join with the join necessary to satisfy the styles lineJoin type, as defined below.

    Caps: Each point has a flat edge perpendicular to the direction of the line coming out of it. This is them augmented according to the value of the styles lineCap. The "butt" value means that no additional line cap is added. The "round" value means that a semi-circle with the diameter equal to the styles lineWidth width must additionally be placed on to the line coming out of each point. The "square" value means that a rectangle with the length of the styles lineWidth width and the width of half the styles lineWidth width, placed flat against the edge perpendicular to the direction of the line coming out of the point, must be added at each point.

    Points with no lines coming out of them must have two caps placed back-to-back as if it was really two points connected to each other by an infinitesimally short straight line in the direction of the point's directionality (as defined above).

    Joins: In addition to the point where a join occurs, two additional points are relevant to each join, one for each line: the two corners found half the line width away from the join point, one perpendicular to each line, each on the side furthest from the other line.

    A triangle connecting these two opposite corners with a straight line, with the third point of the triangle being the join point, must be added at all joins. The lineJoin attribute controls whether anything else is rendered. The three aforementioned values have the following meanings:

    The "bevel" value means that this is all that is rendered at joins.

    The "round" value means that an arc connecting the two aforementioned corners of the join, abutting (and not overlapping) the aforementioned triangle, with the diameter equal to the line width and the origin at the point of the join, must be added at joins.

    The "miter" value means that a second triangle must (if it can given the miter length) be added at the join, with one line being the line between the two aforementioned corners, abutting the first triangle, and the other two being continuations of the outside edges of the two joining lines, as long as required to intersect without going over the miter length.

    The miter length is the distance from the point where the join occurs to the intersection of the line edges on the outside of the join. The miter limit ratio is the maximum allowed ratio of the miter length to half the line width. If the miter length would cause the miter limit ratio (as set by the style miterLimit attribute) to be exceeded, this second triangle must not be added.

    The subpaths in the newly created path must be oriented such that for any point, the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that point crosses a subpath is even if and only if the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that same point crosses a subpath going in one direction is equal to the number of times it crosses a subpath going in the other direction.

  10. Return the newly created path.

4.12.5.1.4 Text styles
context . font [ = value ]
styles . font [ = value ]

Returns the current font settings.

Can be set, to change the font. The syntax is the same as for the CSS 'font' property; values that cannot be parsed as CSS font values are ignored.

Relative keywords and lengths are computed relative to the font of the canvas element.

context . textAlign [ = value ]
styles . textAlign [ = value ]

Returns the current text alignment settings.

Can be set, to change the alignment. The possible values are and their meanings are given below. Other values are ignored. The default is "start".

context . textBaseline [ = value ]
styles . textBaseline [ = value ]

Returns the current baseline alignment settings.

Can be set, to change the baseline alignment. The possible values and their meanings are given below. Other values are ignored. The default is "alphabetic".

context . direction [ = value ]
styles . direction [ = value ]

Returns the current directionality.

Can be set, to change the directionality. The possible values and their meanings are given below. Other values are ignored. The default is "inherit".

Objects that implement the CanvasTextDrawingStyles interface have attributes (defined in this section) that control how text is laid out (rasterized or outlined) by the object. Such objects can also have a font style source object. For CanvasRenderingContext2D objects, this is the canvas element referenced by the context's canvas property.

The font IDL attribute, on setting, must be parsed as a CSS <'font'> value (but without supporting property-independent style sheet syntax like 'inherit'), and the resulting font must be assigned to the context, with the 'line-height' component forced to 'normal', with the 'font-size' component converted to CSS pixels, and with system fonts being computed to explicit values. If the new value is syntactically incorrect (including using property-independent style sheet syntax like 'inherit' or 'initial'), then it must be ignored, without assigning a new font value. [CSS]

Font family names must be interpreted in the context of the font style source object when the font is to be used; any fonts embedded using @font-face or loaded using FontFace objects that are visible to the font style source object must therefore be available once they are loaded. (Each font style source object has a font source, which determines what fonts are available.) If a font is used before it is fully loaded, or if the font style source object does not have that font in scope at the time the font is to be used, then it must be treated as if it was an unknown font, falling back to another as described by the relevant CSS specifications. [CSSFONTS] [CSSFONTLOAD]

On getting, the font attribute must return the serialized form of the current font of the context (with no 'line-height' component). [CSSOM]

For example, after the following statement:

context.font = 'italic 400 12px/2 Unknown Font, sans-serif';

...the expression context.font would evaluate to the string "italic 12px "Unknown Font", sans-serif". The "400" font-weight doesn't appear because that is the default value. The line-height doesn't appear because it is forced to "normal", the default value.

When the object implementing the CanvasTextDrawingStyles interface is created, the font of the context must be set to 10px sans-serif. When the 'font-size' component is set to lengths using percentages, 'em' or 'ex' units, or the 'larger' or 'smaller' keywords, these must be interpreted relative to the computed value of the 'font-size' property of the font style source object at the time that the attribute is set, if it is an element. When the 'font-weight' component is set to the relative values 'bolder' and 'lighter', these must be interpreted relative to the computed value of the 'font-weight' property of the font style source object at the time that the attribute is set, if it is an element. If the computed values are undefined for a particular case (e.g. because the font style source object is not an element or is not being rendered), then the relative keywords must be interpreted relative to the normal-weight 10px sans-serif default.

The textAlign IDL attribute, on getting, must return the current value. On setting, the current value must be changed to the new value. When the object implementing the CanvasTextDrawingStyles interface is created, the textAlign attribute must initially have the value start.

The textBaseline IDL attribute, on getting, must return the current value. On setting, the current value must be changed to the new value. When the object implementing the CanvasTextDrawingStyles interface is created, the textBaseline attribute must initially have the value alphabetic.

The direction IDL attribute, on getting, must return the current value. On setting, the current value must be changed to the new value. When the object implementing the CanvasTextDrawingStyles interface is created, the direction attribute must initially have the value "inherit".

The textAlign attribute's allowed keywords are as follows:

start

Align to the start edge of the text (left side in left-to-right text, right side in right-to-left text).

end

Align to the end edge of the text (right side in left-to-right text, left side in right-to-left text).

left

Align to the left.

right

Align to the right.

center

Align to the center.

The textBaseline attribute's allowed keywords correspond to alignment points in the font:

The top of the em square is roughly at the top of the glyphs in a font, the hanging baseline is where some glyphs like आ are anchored, the middle is half-way between the top of the em square and the bottom of the em square, the alphabetic baseline is where characters like Á, ÿ, f, and Ω are anchored, the ideographic baseline is where glyphs like 私 and 達 are anchored, and the bottom of the em square is roughly at the bottom of the glyphs in a font. The top and bottom of the bounding box can be far from these baselines, due to glyphs extending far outside the em square.

The keywords map to these alignment points as follows:

top
The top of the em square
hanging
The hanging baseline
middle
The middle of the em square
alphabetic
The alphabetic baseline
ideographic
The ideographic baseline
bottom
The bottom of the em square

The direction attribute's allowed keywords are as follows:

ltr

Treat input to the text preparation algorithm as left-to-right text.

rtl

Treat input to the text preparation algorithm as right-to-left text.

inherit

Default to the directionality of the canvas element or Document as appropriate.

The text preparation algorithm is as follows. It takes as input a string text , a CanvasTextDrawingStyles object target, and an optional length maxWidth. It returns an array of glyph shapes, each positioned on a common coordinate space, a physical alignment whose value is one of left, right, and center, and an inline box. (Most callers of this algorithm ignore the physical alignment and the inline box.)

  1. If maxWidth was provided but is less than or equal to zero or equal to NaN, return an empty array.

  2. Replace all the space characters in text with U+0020 SPACE characters.

  3. Let font be the current font of target, as given by that object's font attribute.

  4. Apply the appropriate step from the following list to determine the value of direction:

    If the target object's direction attribute has the value "ltr"
    Let direction be 'ltr'.
    If the target object's direction attribute has the value "rtl"
    Let direction be 'rtl'.
    If the target object's font style source object is an element
    Let direction be the directionality of the target object's font style source object.
    If the target object's font style source object is a Document with a non-null document element
    Let direction be the directionality of the target object's font style source object's document element.
    Otherwise
    Let direction be 'ltr'.
  5. Form a hypothetical infinitely-wide CSS line box containing a single inline box containing the text text, with all the properties at their initial values except the 'font' property of the inline box set to font, the 'direction' property of the inline box set to direction, and the 'white-space' property set to 'pre'. [CSS]

  6. If maxWidth was provided and the hypothetical width of the inline box in the hypothetical line box is greater than maxWidth CSS pixels, then change font to have a more condensed font (if one is available or if a reasonably readable one can be synthesized by applying a horizontal scale factor to the font) or a smaller font, and return to the previous step.

  7. The anchor point is a point on the inline box, and the physical alignment is one of the values left, right, and center. These variables are determined by the textAlign and textBaseline values as follows:

    Horizontal position:

    If textAlign is left
    If textAlign is start and direction is 'ltr'
    If textAlign is end and direction is 'rtl'
    Let the anchor point's horizontal position be the left edge of the inline box, and let physical alignment be left.
    If textAlign is right
    If textAlign is end and direction is 'ltr'
    If textAlign is start and direction is 'rtl'
    Let the anchor point's horizontal position be the right edge of the inline box, and let physical alignment be right.
    If textAlign is center
    Let the anchor point's horizontal position be half way between the left and right edges of the inline box, and let physical alignment be center.

    Vertical position:

    If textBaseline is top
    Let the anchor point's vertical position be the top of the em box of the first available font of the inline box.
    If textBaseline is hanging
    Let the anchor point's vertical position be the hanging baseline of the first available font of the inline box.
    If textBaseline is middle
    Let the anchor point's vertical position be half way between the bottom and the top of the em box of the first available font of the inline box.
    If textBaseline is alphabetic
    Let the anchor point's vertical position be the alphabetic baseline of the first available font of the inline box.
    If textBaseline is ideographic
    Let the anchor point's vertical position be the ideographic baseline of the first available font of the inline box.
    If textBaseline is bottom
    Let the anchor point's vertical position be the bottom of the em box of the first available font of the inline box.
  8. Let result be an array constructed by iterating over each glyph in the inline box from left to right (if any), adding to the array, for each glyph, the shape of the glyph as it is in the inline box, positioned on a coordinate space using CSS pixels with its origin is at the anchor point.

  9. Return result, physical alignment, and the inline box.

4.12.5.1.5 Building paths

Objects that implement the CanvasPath interface have a path. A path has a list of zero or more subpaths. Each subpath consists of a list of one or more points, connected by straight or curved line segments, and a flag indicating whether the subpath is closed or not. A closed subpath is one where the last point of the subpath is connected to the first point of the subpath by a straight line. Subpaths with only one point are ignored when painting the path.

Paths have a need new subpath flag. When this flag is set, certain APIs create a new subpath rather than extending the previous one. When a path is created, its need new subpath flag must be set.

When an object implementing the CanvasPath interface is created, its path must be initialized to zero subpaths.

context . moveTo(x, y)
path . moveTo(x, y)

Creates a new subpath with the given point.

context . closePath()
path . closePath()

Marks the current subpath as closed, and starts a new subpath with a point the same as the start and end of the newly closed subpath.

context . lineTo(x, y)
path . lineTo(x, y)

Adds the given point to the current subpath, connected to the previous one by a straight line.

context . quadraticCurveTo(cpx, cpy, x, y)
path . quadraticCurveTo(cpx, cpy, x, y)

Adds the given point to the current subpath, connected to the previous one by a quadratic Bézier curve with the given control point.

context . bezierCurveTo(cp1x, cp1y, cp2x, cp2y, x, y)
path . bezierCurveTo(cp1x, cp1y, cp2x, cp2y, x, y)

Adds the given point to the current subpath, connected to the previous one by a cubic Bézier curve with the given control points.

context . arcTo(x1, y1, x2, y2, radiusX [, radiusY, rotation ] )
path . arcTo(x1, y1, x2, y2, radiusX [, radiusY, rotation ] )

Adds an arc with the given control points and radius to the current subpath, connected to the previous point by a straight line.

If two radii are provided, the first controls the width of the arc's ellipse, and the second controls the height. If only one is provided, or if they are the same, the arc is from a circle. In the case of an ellipse, the rotation argument controls the clockwise inclination of the ellipse relative to the x-axis.

Throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException if the given radius is negative.

context . arc(x, y, radius, startAngle, endAngle [, anticlockwise ] )
path . arc(x, y, radius, startAngle, endAngle [, anticlockwise ] )

Adds points to the subpath such that the arc described by the circumference of the circle described by the arguments, starting at the given start angle and ending at the given end angle, going in the given direction (defaulting to clockwise), is added to the path, connected to the previous point by a straight line.

Throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException if the given radius is negative.

context . ellipse(x, y, radiusX, radiusY, rotation, startAngle, endAngle [, anticlockwise] )
path . ellipse(x, y, radiusX, radiusY, rotation, startAngle, endAngle [, anticlockwise] )

Adds points to the subpath such that the arc described by the circumference of the ellipse described by the arguments, starting at the given start angle and ending at the given end angle, going in the given direction (defaulting to clockwise), is added to the path, connected to the previous point by a straight line.

Throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException if the given radius is negative.

context . rect(x, y, w, h)
path . rect(x, y, w, h)

Adds a new closed subpath to the path, representing the given rectangle.

The following methods allow authors to manipulate the paths of objects implementing the CanvasPath interface.

For objects implementing the CanvasDrawPath and CanvasTransform interfaces, the points passed to the methods, and the resulting lines added to current default path by these methods, must be transformed according to the current transformation matrix before being added to the path.

The moveTo(x, y) method must create a new subpath with the specified point as its first (and only) point.

When the user agent is to ensure there is a subpath for a coordinate (x, y) on a path, the user agent must check to see if the path has its need new subpath flag set. If it does, the user agent must create a new subpath with the point (x, y) as its first (and only) point, as if the moveTo() method had been called, and must then unset the path's need new subpath flag.

The closePath() method must do nothing if the object's path has no subpaths. Otherwise, it must mark the last subpath as closed, create a new subpath whose first point is the same as the previous subpath's first point, and finally add this new subpath to the path.

If the last subpath had more than one point in its list of points, then this is equivalent to adding a straight line connecting the last point back to the first point, thus "closing" the shape, and then repeating the last (possibly implied) moveTo() call.

New points and the lines connecting them are added to subpaths using the methods described below. In all cases, the methods only modify the last subpath in the object's path.

The lineTo(x, y) method must ensure there is a subpath for (x, y) if the object's path has no subpaths. Otherwise, it must connect the last point in the subpath to the given point (x, y) using a straight line, and must then add the given point (x, y) to the subpath.

The quadraticCurveTo(cpx, cpy, x, y) method must ensure there is a subpath for (cpx, cpy), and then must connect the last point in the subpath to the given point (x, y) using a quadratic Bézier curve with control point (cpx, cpy), and must then add the given point (x, y) to the subpath. [BEZIER]

The bezierCurveTo(cp1x, cp1y, cp2x, cp2y, x, y) method must ensure there is a subpath for (cp1x, cp1y), and then must connect the last point in the subpath to the given point (x, y) using a cubic Bézier curve with control points (cp1x, cp1y) and (cp2x, cp2y). Then, it must add the point (x, y) to the subpath. [BEZIER]


The arcTo(x1, y1, x2, y2, radiusX, radiusY, rotation) method must first ensure there is a subpath for (x1, y1). Then, the behavior depends on the arguments and the last point in the subpath, as described below.

Negative values for radiusX or radiusY must cause the implementation to throw an "IndexSizeError" DOMException. If radiusY is omitted, user agents must act as if it had the same value as radiusX.

Let the point (x0, y0) be the last point in the subpath, transformed by the inverse of the current transformation matrix (so that it is in the same coordinate system as the points passed to the method).

If the point (x0, y0) is equal to the point (x1, y1), or if the point (x1, y1) is equal to the point (x2, y2), or if both radiusX and radiusY are zero, then the method must add the point (x1, y1) to the subpath, and connect that point to the previous point (x0, y0) by a straight line.

Otherwise, if the points (x0, y0), (x1, y1), and (x2, y2) all lie on a single straight line, then the method must add the point (x1, y1) to the subpath, and connect that point to the previous point (x0, y0) by a straight line.

Otherwise, let The Arc be the shortest arc given by circumference of the ellipse that has radius radiusX on the major axis and radius radiusY on the minor axis, and whose semi-major axis is rotated rotation radians clockwise from the positive x-axis, and that has one point tangent to the half-infinite line that crosses the point (x0, y0) and ends at the point (x1, y1), and that has a different point tangent to the half-infinite line that ends at the point (x1, y1) and crosses the point (x2, y2). The points at which this ellipse touches these two lines are called the start and end tangent points respectively. The method must connect the point (x0, y0) to the start tangent point by a straight line, adding the start tangent point to the subpath, and then must connect the start tangent point to the end tangent point by The Arc, adding the end tangent point to the subpath.


The arc(x, y, radius, startAngle, endAngle, anticlockwise) and ellipse(x, y, radiusX, radiusY, rotation, startAngle, endAngle, anticlockwise) methods draw arcs.

The arc() method is equivalent to the ellipse() method in the case where the two radii are equal. When the arc() method is invoked, it must act as if the ellipse() method had been invoked with the radiusX and radiusY arguments set to the value of the radius argument, the rotation argument set to zero, and the other arguments set to the same values as their identically named arguments on the arc() method.

When the ellipse() method is invoked, it must proceed as follows. First, if the object's path has any subpaths, then the method must add a straight line from the last point in the subpath to the start point of the arc. Then, it must add the start and end points of the arc to the subpath, and connect them with an arc. The arc and its start and end points are defined as follows:

Consider an ellipse that has its origin at (x, y), that has a major-axis radius radiusX and a minor-axis radius radiusY, and that is rotated about its origin such that its semi-major axis is inclined rotation radians clockwise from the x-axis.

If the anticlockwise argument is false and endAngle-startAngle is equal to or greater than , or, if the anticlockwise argument is true and startAngle-endAngle is equal to or greater than , then the arc is the whole circumference of this ellipse, and the point at startAngle along this circle's circumference, measured in radians clockwise from the ellipse's semi-major axis, acts as both the start point and the end point.

Otherwise, the points at startAngle and endAngle along this circle's circumference, measured in radians clockwise from the ellipse's semi-major axis, are the start and end points respectively, and the arc is the path along the circumference of this ellipse from the start point to the end point, going anti-clockwise if the anticlockwise argument is true, and clockwise otherwise. Since the points are on the ellipse, as opposed to being simply angles from zero, the arc can never cover an angle greater than radians.

Even if the arc covers the entire circumference of the ellipse and there are no other points in the subpath, the path is not closed unless the closePath() method is appropriately invoked.

Negative values for radiusX or radiusY must cause the implementation to throw an "IndexSizeError" DOMException.


The rect(x, y, w, h) method must create a new subpath containing just the four points (x, y), (x+w, y), (x+w, y+h), (x, y+h), in that order, with those four points connected by straight lines, and must then mark the subpath as closed. It must then create a new subpath with the point (x, y) as the only point in the subpath.

4.12.5.1.6 Path2D objects

Spec bugs: 21939

Path2D objects can be used to declare paths that are then later used on objects implementing the CanvasDrawPath interface. In addition to many of the APIs described in earlier sections, Path2D objects have methods to combine paths, and to add text to paths.

path = new Path2D()

Creates a new empty Path2D object.

path = new Path2D(path)

Creates a new Path2D object that is a copy of the argument.

path = new Path2D(paths [, fillRule ] )

Creates a new Path2D object that describes a path that outlines the given paths, using the given fill rule.

path = new Path2D(d)

Creates a new path with the path described by the argument, interpreted as SVG path data. [SVG]

path . addPath(path [, transform ] )

Adds to the path the path given by the argument.

The Path2D() constructor, when invoked, must return a newly created Path2D object.


The Path2D(path) constructor, when invoked, must return a newly created Path2D object, to which the subpaths of the argument are added. (In other words, it returns a copy of the argument.)


The Path2D(paths, fillRule) constructor, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. Run the appropriate step from the following list, based on the constructor's second argument:

    If it is "nonzero"

    Let merged path be a path that consists of a set of non-overlapping subpaths that exactly outline the points from which, in any of the paths provided in the constructor's first argument, the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that point crosses a subpath going in one direction is not equal to the number of times it crosses a subpath going in the other direction.

    If it is "evenodd"

    Let merged path be a path that consists of a set of non-overlapping subpaths that exactly outline the points from which, in any of the paths provided in the constructor's first argument, the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that point crosses that path is odd.

    The subpaths in merged path must be oriented such that for any point, the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that point crosses a subpath is even if and only if the number of times a half-infinite straight line drawn from that same point crosses a subpath going in one direction is equal to the number of times it crosses a subpath going in the other direction.

  2. Add all the subpaths in merged path to the Path2D object.

  3. Set the Path2D object's need new subpath flag.


The Path2D(d) constructor must run the following steps:

  1. Parse and interpret the d argument according to the SVG specification's rules for path data, thus obtaining an SVG path. [SVG]

    The resulting path could be empty. SVG defines error handling rules for parsing and applying path data.

  2. Let (x, y) be the last point in the SVG path.

  3. Create a new Path2D object and add all the subpaths in the SVG path, if any, to that Path2D object.

  4. Create a new subpath in the Path2D object with (x, y) as the only point in the subpath.

  5. Return the Path2D object as the constructed object.


The addPath(b, transform) method, when invoked on a Path2D object a, must run the following steps:

  1. If the Path2D object b has no subpaths, abort these steps.

  2. Create a copy of all the subpaths in b. Let this copy be known as c.

  3. Let matrix be the result of creating a DOMMatrix from a dictionary transform.

  4. Transform all the coordinates and lines in c by the transform matrix matrix.

  5. Let (x, y) be the last point in the last subpath of c.

  6. Add all the subpaths in c to a.

  7. Create a new subpath in a with (x, y) as the only point in the subpath.

4.12.5.1.7 Transformations

Spec bugs: 28333

Objects that implement the CanvasTransform interface have a current transformation matrix, as well as methods (described in this section) to manipulate it. When an object implementing the CanvasTransform interface is created, its transformation matrix must be initialized to the identity transform.

The current transformation matrix is applied to coordinates when creating the current default path, and when painting text, shapes, and Path2D objects, on objects implementing the CanvasTransform interface.

Most of the API uses DOMMatrix objects rather than this API. This API remains mostly for historical reasons.

The transformations must be performed in reverse order.

For instance, if a scale transformation that doubles the width is applied to the canvas, followed by a rotation transformation that rotates drawing operations by a quarter turn, and a rectangle twice as wide as it is tall is then drawn on the canvas, the actual result will be a square.

context . scale(x, y)

Changes the current transformation matrix to apply a scaling transformation with the given characteristics.

context . rotate(angle)

Changes the current transformation matrix to apply a rotation transformation with the given characteristics. The angle is in radians.

context . translate(x, y)

Changes the current transformation matrix to apply a translation transformation with the given characteristics.

context . transform(a, b, c, d, e, f)

Changes the current transformation matrix to apply the matrix given by the arguments as described below.

matrix = context . getTransform()

Returns a copy of the current transformation matrix, as a newly created DOMMatrix object.

context . setTransform(a, b, c, d, e, f)

Changes the current transformation matrix to the matrix given by the arguments as described below.

context . setTransform(transform)

Changes the current transformation matrix to the matrix represented by the passed DOMMatrixInit dictionary.

context . resetTransform()

Changes the current transformation matrix to the identity transform.

The scale(x, y) method must add the scaling transformation described by the arguments to the current transformation matrix. The x argument represents the scale factor in the horizontal direction and the y argument represents the scale factor in the vertical direction. The factors are multiples.

The rotate(angle) method must add the rotation transformation described by the argument to the current transformation matrix. The angle argument represents a clockwise rotation angle expressed in radians.

The translate(x, y) method must add the translation transformation described by the arguments to the current transformation matrix. The x argument represents the translation distance in the horizontal direction and the y argument represents the translation distance in the vertical direction. The arguments are in coordinate space units.

The transform(a, b, c, d, e, f) method must replace the current transformation matrix with the result of multiplying the current transformation matrix with the matrix described by:

ace
bdf
001

The arguments a, b, c, d, e, and f are sometimes called m11, m12, m21, m22, dx, and dy or m11, m21, m12, m22, dx, and dy. Care should be taken in particular with the order of the second and third arguments (b and c) as their order varies from API to API and APIs sometimes use the notation m12/m21 and sometimes m21/m12 for those positions.

The getTransform() method, when invoked, must return a newly created DOMMatrix representing a copy of the current transformation matrix matrix of the context.

This returned object is not live, so updating it will not affect the current transformation matrix, and updating the current transformation matrix will not affect an already returned DOMMatrix.

The setTransform(a, b, c, d, e, f) method must reset the current transformation matrix to the identity matrix, and then invoke the transform(a, b, c, d, e, f) method with the same arguments.

The setTransform(transform) method must reset the current transformation matrix to the value represented by the result of creating a DOMMatrix from a dictionary transform.

The resetTransform() method must reset the current transformation matrix to the identity matrix.

4.12.5.1.8 Image sources for 2D rendering contexts

Some methods on the CanvasDrawImage and CanvasFillStrokeStyles interfaces take the union type CanvasImageSource as an argument.

This union type allows objects implementing any of the following interfaces to be used as image sources:

Although not formally specified as such, SVG image elements are expected to be implemented nearly identical to img elements. That is, SVG image elements share the fundamental concepts and features of img elements.

The ImageBitmap interface can be created from a number of other image-representing types, including ImageData.

When a user agent is required to check the usability of the image argument, where image is a CanvasImageSource object, the user agent must run these steps, which return either good, bad, or aborted:

  1. If the image argument is an HTMLOrSVGImageElement object that is in the broken state, then throw an "InvalidStateError" DOMException, return aborted, and abort these steps.

  2. If the image argument is an HTMLOrSVGImageElement object that is not fully decodable, or if the image argument is an HTMLVideoElement object whose readyState attribute is either HAVE_NOTHING or HAVE_METADATA, then return bad and abort these steps.

  3. If the image argument is an HTMLOrSVGImageElement object with an intrinsic width or intrinsic height (or both) equal to zero, then return bad and abort these steps.

  4. If the image argument is an HTMLCanvasElement object with either a horizontal dimension or a vertical dimension equal to zero, then return bad and abort these steps.

  5. If the image argument is an ImageBitmap object with its [[Detached]] internal slot value set to true, then throw an "InvalidStateError" DOMException, return aborted, and abort these steps.

  6. Return good.

When a CanvasImageSource object represents an HTMLOrSVGImageElement, the element's image must be used as the source image.

Specifically, when a CanvasImageSource object represents an animated image in an HTMLOrSVGImageElement, the user agent must use the default image of the animation (the one that the format defines is to be used when animation is not supported or is disabled), or, if there is no such image, the first frame of the animation, when rendering the image for CanvasRenderingContext2D APIs.

When a CanvasImageSource object represents an HTMLVideoElement, then the frame at the current playback position when the method with the argument is invoked must be used as the source image when rendering the image for CanvasRenderingContext2D APIs, and the source image's dimensions must be the intrinsic width and intrinsic height of the media resource (i.e. after any aspect-ratio correction has been applied).

When a CanvasImageSource object represents an HTMLCanvasElement, the element's bitmap must be used as the source image.

When a CanvasImageSource object represents an element that is being rendered and that element has been resized, the original image data of the source image must be used, not the image as it is rendered (e.g. width and height attributes on the source element have no effect on how the object is interpreted when rendering the image for CanvasRenderingContext2D APIs).

When a CanvasImageSource object represents an ImageBitmap, the object's bitmap image data must be used as the source image.

The image argument is not origin-clean if it is an HTMLOrSVGImageElement or HTMLVideoElement whose origin is not the same as the origin specified by the entry settings object, or if it is an HTMLCanvasElement whose bitmap's origin-clean flag is false.

4.12.5.1.9 Fill and stroke styles
context . fillStyle [ = value ]

Returns the current style used for filling shapes.

Can be set, to change the fill style.

The style can be either a string containing a CSS color, or a CanvasGradient or CanvasPattern object. Invalid values are ignored.

context . strokeStyle [ = value ]

Returns the current style used for stroking shapes.

Can be set, to change the stroke style.

The style can be either a string containing a CSS color, or a CanvasGradient or CanvasPattern object. Invalid values are ignored.

Objects that implement the CanvasFillStrokeStyles interface have attributes and methods (defined in this section) that control how shapes are treated by the object.

The fillStyle attribute represents the color or style to use inside shapes, and the strokeStyle attribute represents the color or style to use for the lines around the shapes.

Both attributes can be either strings, CanvasGradients, or CanvasPatterns. On setting, strings must be parsed as CSS <color> values and the color assigned, and CanvasGradient and CanvasPattern objects must be assigned themselves. [CSSCOLOR] If the value is a string but cannot be parsed as a CSS <color> value, then it must be ignored, and the attribute must retain its previous value. If the new value is a CanvasPattern object that is marked as not origin-clean, then the CanvasRenderingContext2D's origin-clean flag must be set to false.

When set to a CanvasPattern or CanvasGradient object, the assignment is live, meaning that changes made to the object after the assignment do affect subsequent stroking or filling of shapes.

On getting, if the value is a color, then the serialization of the color must be returned. Otherwise, if it is not a color but a CanvasGradient or CanvasPattern, then the respective object must be returned. (Such objects are opaque and therefore only useful for assigning to other attributes or for comparison to other gradients or patterns.)

The serialization of a color for a color value is a string, computed as follows: if it has alpha equal to 1.0, then the string is a lowercase six-digit hex value, prefixed with a "#" character (U+0023 NUMBER SIGN), with the first two digits representing the red component, the next two digits representing the green component, and the last two digits representing the blue component, the digits being lowercase ASCII hex digits. Otherwise, the color value has alpha less than 1.0, and the string is the color value in the CSS rgba() functional-notation format: the literal string "rgba" (U+0072 U+0067 U+0062 U+0061) followed by a U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS, a base-ten integer in the range 0-255 representing the red component (using ASCII digits in the shortest form possible), a literal U+002C COMMA and U+0020 SPACE, an integer for the green component, a comma and a space, an integer for the blue component, another comma and space, a U+0030 DIGIT ZERO, if the alpha value is greater than zero then a U+002E FULL STOP (representing the decimal point), if the alpha value is greater than zero then one or more ASCII digits representing the fractional part of the alpha, and finally a U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS. User agents must express the fractional part of the alpha value, if any, with the level of precision necessary for the alpha value, when reparsed, to be interpreted as the same alpha value.

When the context is created, the fillStyle and strokeStyle attributes must initially have the string value #000000.

When the value is a color, it must not be affected by the transformation matrix when used to draw on bitmaps.


There are two types of gradients, linear gradients and radial gradients, both represented by objects implementing the opaque CanvasGradient interface.

Once a gradient has been created (see below), stops are placed along it to define how the colors are distributed along the gradient. The color of the gradient at each stop is the color specified for that stop. Between each such stop, the colors and the alpha component must be linearly interpolated over the RGBA space without premultiplying the alpha value to find the color to use at that offset. Before the first stop, the color must be the color of the first stop. After the last stop, the color must be the color of the last stop. When there are no stops, the gradient is transparent black.

gradient . addColorStop(offset, color)

Adds a color stop with the given color to the gradient at the given offset. 0.0 is the offset at one end of the gradient, 1.0 is the offset at the other end.

Throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException if the offset is out of range. Throws a "SyntaxError" DOMException if the color cannot be parsed.

gradient = context . createLinearGradient(x0, y0, x1, y1)

Returns a CanvasGradient object that represents a linear gradient that paints along the line given by the coordinates represented by the arguments.

gradient = context . createRadialGradient(x0, y0, r0, x1, y1, r1)

Returns a CanvasGradient object that represents a radial gradient that paints along the cone given by the circles represented by the arguments.

If either of the radii are negative, throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException exception.

The addColorStop(offset, color) method on the CanvasGradient interface adds a new stop to a gradient. If the offset is less than 0 or greater than 1 then an "IndexSizeError" DOMException must be thrown. If the color cannot be parsed as a CSS <color> value, then a "SyntaxError" DOMException must be thrown. Otherwise, the gradient must have a new stop placed, at offset offset relative to the whole gradient, and with the color obtained by parsing color as a CSS <color> value. If multiple stops are added at the same offset on a gradient, they must be placed in the order added, with the first one closest to the start of the gradient, and each subsequent one infinitesimally further along towards the end point (in effect causing all but the first and last stop added at each point to be ignored).

The createLinearGradient(x0, y0, x1, y1) method takes four arguments that represent the start point (x0, y0) and end point (x1, y1) of the gradient. The method must return a linear CanvasGradient initialized with the specified line.

Linear gradients must be rendered such that all points on a line perpendicular to the line that crosses the start and end points have the color at the point where those two lines cross (with the colors coming from the interpolation and extrapolation described above). The points in the linear gradient must be transformed as described by the current transformation matrix when rendering.

If x0 = x1 and y0 = y1, then the linear gradient must paint nothing.

The createRadialGradient(x0, y0, r0, x1, y1, r1) method takes six arguments, the first three representing the start circle with origin (x0, y0) and radius r0, and the last three representing the end circle with origin (x1, y1) and radius r1. The values are in coordinate space units. If either of r0 or r1 are negative, an "IndexSizeError" DOMException must be thrown. Otherwise, the method must return a radial CanvasGradient initialized with the two specified circles.

Radial gradients must be rendered by following these steps:

  1. If x0 = x1 and y0 = y1 and r0 = r1, then the radial gradient must paint nothing. Abort these steps.

  2. Let x(ω) = (x1-x0)ω + x0

    Let y(ω) = (y1-y0)ω + y0

    Let r(ω) = (r1-r0)ω + r0

    Let the color at ω be the color at that position on the gradient (with the colors coming from the interpolation and extrapolation described above).

  3. For all values of ω where r(ω) > 0, starting with the value of ω nearest to positive infinity and ending with the value of ω nearest to negative infinity, draw the circumference of the circle with radius r(ω) at position (x(ω), y(ω)), with the color at ω, but only painting on the parts of the bitmap that have not yet been painted on by earlier circles in this step for this rendering of the gradient.

This effectively creates a cone, touched by the two circles defined in the creation of the gradient, with the part of the cone before the start circle (0.0) using the color of the first offset, the part of the cone after the end circle (1.0) using the color of the last offset, and areas outside the cone untouched by the gradient (transparent black).

The resulting radial gradient must then be transformed as described by the current transformation matrix when rendering.

Gradients must be painted only where the relevant stroking or filling effects requires that they be drawn.


Patterns are represented by objects implementing the opaque CanvasPattern interface.

pattern = context . createPattern(image, repetition)

Returns a CanvasPattern object that uses the given image and repeats in the direction(s) given by the repetition argument.

The allowed values for repetition are repeat (both directions), repeat-x (horizontal only), repeat-y (vertical only), and no-repeat (neither). If the repetition argument is empty, the value repeat is used.

If the image isn't yet fully decoded, then nothing is drawn. If the image is a canvas with no data, throws an "InvalidStateError" DOMException.

pattern . setTransform(transform)

Sets the transformation matrix that will be used when rendering the pattern during a fill or stroke painting operation.

To create objects of this type, the createPattern(image, repetition) method is used. When the method is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Let image be the first argument and repetition be the second argument.

  2. Check the usability of the image argument. If this returns aborted, then an exception has been thrown and the method doesn't return anything; abort these steps. If it returns bad, then return null and abort these steps. Otherwise it returns good; continue with these steps.

  3. If repetition is the empty string, let it be "repeat".

  4. If repetition is not a case-sensitive match for one of "repeat", "repeat-x", "repeat-y", or "no-repeat", throw a "SyntaxError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  5. Create a new CanvasPattern object with the image image and the repetition behavior given by repetition.

  6. If the image argument is not origin-clean, then mark the CanvasPattern object as not origin-clean.

  7. Return the CanvasPattern object.

Modifying the image used when creating a CanvasPattern object after calling the createPattern() method must not affect the pattern(s) rendered by the CanvasPattern object.

Patterns have a transformation matrix, which controls how the pattern is used when it is painted. Initially, a pattern's transformation matrix must be the identity transform.

The setTransform(transform) method, when invoked, must reset the pattern's transformation matrix to the value represented by the result of creating a DOMMatrix from a dictionary transform.

When a pattern is to be rendered within an area, the user agent must run the following steps to determine what is rendered:

  1. Create an infinite transparent black bitmap.

  2. Place a copy of the image on the bitmap, anchored such that its top left corner is at the origin of the coordinate space, with one coordinate space unit per CSS pixel of the image, then place repeated copies of this image horizontally to the left and right, if the repetition behavior is "repeat-x", or vertically up and down, if the repetition behavior is "repeat-y", or in all four directions all over the bitmap, if the repetition behavior is "repeat".

    If the original image data is a bitmap image, the value painted at a point in the area of the repetitions is computed by filtering the original image data. When scaling up, if the imageSmoothingEnabled attribute is set to false, the image must be rendered using nearest-neighbor interpolation. Otherwise, the user agent may use any filtering algorithm (for example bilinear interpolation or nearest-neighbor). User agents which support multiple filtering algorithms may use the value of the imageSmoothingQuality attribute to guide the choice of filtering algorithm. When such a filtering algorithm requires a pixel value from outside the original image data, it must instead use the value from wrapping the pixel's coordinates to the original image's dimensions. (That is, the filter uses 'repeat' behavior, regardless of the value of the pattern's repetition behavior.)

  3. Transform the resulting bitmap according to the pattern's transformation matrix.

  4. Transform the resulting bitmap again, this time according to the current transformation matrix.

  5. Replace any part of the image outside the area in which the pattern is to be rendered with transparent black.

  6. The resulting bitmap is what is to be rendered, with the same origin and same scale.


If a radial gradient or repeated pattern is used when the transformation matrix is singular, the resulting style must be transparent black (otherwise the gradient or pattern would be collapsed to a point or line, leaving the other pixels undefined). Linear gradients and solid colors always define all points even with singular transformation matrices.

4.12.5.1.10 Drawing rectangles to the bitmap

Objects that implement the CanvasRect interface provide the following methods for immediately drawing rectangles to the bitmap. The methods each take four arguments; the first two give the x and y coordinates of the top left of the rectangle, and the second two give the width w and height h of the rectangle, respectively.

The current transformation matrix must be applied to the following four coordinates, which form the path that must then be closed to get the specified rectangle: (x, y), (x+w, y), (x+w, y+h), (x, y+h).

Shapes are painted without affecting the current default path, and are subject to the clipping region, and, with the exception of clearRect(), also shadow effects, global alpha, and global composition operators.

context . clearRect(x, y, w, h)

Clears all pixels on the bitmap in the given rectangle to transparent black.

context . fillRect(x, y, w, h)

Paints the given rectangle onto the bitmap, using the current fill style.

context . strokeRect(x, y, w, h)

Paints the box that outlines the given rectangle onto the bitmap, using the current stroke style.

The clearRect(x, y, w, h) method must run the following steps:

  1. Let pixels be the set of pixels in the specified rectangle that also intersect the current clipping region.

  2. Clear the pixels in pixels to a fully transparent black, erasing any previous image.

  3. Clear regions that cover the pixels in pixels on the output bitmap.

If either height or width are zero, this method has no effect, since the set of pixels would be empty.

The fillRect(x, y, w, h) method must paint the specified rectangular area using the fillStyle. If either height or width are zero, this method has no effect.

The strokeRect(x, y, w, h) method must take the result of tracing the path described below, using the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface's line styles, and fill it with the strokeStyle.

If both w and h are zero, the path has a single subpath with just one point (x, y), and no lines, and this method thus has no effect (the trace a path algorithm returns an empty path in that case).

If just one of either w or h is zero, then the path has a single subpath consisting of two points, with coordinates (x, y) and (x+w, y+h), in that order, connected by a single straight line.

Otherwise, the path has a single subpath consisting of four points, with coordinates (x, y), (x+w, y), (x+w, y+h), and (x, y+h), connected to each other in that order by straight lines.

4.12.5.1.11 Drawing text to the bitmap

Support: Chrome 4+Chrome for Android 51+iOS Safari 3.2+UC Browser for Android 9.9+Firefox 3.5+IE 9+Opera Mini NoneSamsung Internet 4+Android Browser 2.1+Safari 4+Edge 12+Opera 10.5+

Source: caniuse.com

context . fillText(text, x, y [, maxWidth ] )
context . strokeText(text, x, y [, maxWidth ] )

Fills or strokes (respectively) the given text at the given position. If a maximum width is provided, the text will be scaled to fit that width if necessary.

metrics = context . measureText(text)

Returns a TextMetrics object with the metrics of the given text in the current font.

metrics . width
metrics . actualBoundingBoxLeft
metrics . actualBoundingBoxRight
metrics . fontBoundingBoxAscent
metrics . fontBoundingBoxDescent
metrics . actualBoundingBoxAscent
metrics . actualBoundingBoxDescent
metrics . emHeightAscent
metrics . emHeightDescent
metrics . hangingBaseline
metrics . alphabeticBaseline
metrics . ideographicBaseline

Returns the measurement described below.

Objects that implement the CanvasText interface provide the following methods for rendering text.

The fillText() and strokeText() methods take three or four arguments, text, x, y, and optionally maxWidth, and render the given text at the given (x, y) coordinates ensuring that the text isn't wider than maxWidth if specified, using the current font, textAlign, and textBaseline values. Specifically, when the methods are called, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Run the text preparation algorithm, passing it text, the object implementing the CanvasText interface, and, if the maxWidth argument was provided, that argument. Let glyphs be the result.

  2. Move all the shapes in glyphs to the right by x CSS pixels and down by y CSS pixels.

  3. Paint the shapes given in glyphs, as transformed by the current transformation matrix, with each CSS pixel in the coordinate space of glyphs mapped to one coordinate space unit.

    For fillText(), fillStyle must be applied to the shapes and strokeStyle must be ignored. For strokeText(), the reverse holds: strokeStyle must be applied to the result of tracing the shapes using the object implementing the CanvasText interface for the line styles, and fillStyle must be ignored.

    These shapes are painted without affecting the current path, and are subject to shadow effects, global alpha, the clipping region, and global composition operators.

The measureText() method takes one argument, text. When the method is invoked, the user agent must run the text preparation algorithm, passing it text and the object implementing the CanvasText interface, and then using the returned inline box must create a new TextMetrics object with its attributes set as described in the following list. If doing these measurements requires using a font that has an origin that is not the same as that of the Document object that owns the canvas element (even if "using a font" means just checking if that font has a particular glyph in it before falling back to another font), then the method must throw a "SecurityError" DOMException. Otherwise, it must return the new TextMetrics object. [CSS] (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

width attribute

The width of that inline box, in CSS pixels. (The text's advance width.)

actualBoundingBoxLeft attribute

The distance parallel to the baseline from the alignment point given by the textAlign attribute to the left side of the bounding rectangle of the given text, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating a distance going left from the given alignment point.

The sum of this value and the next (actualBoundingBoxRight) can be wider than the width of the inline box (width), in particular with slanted fonts where characters overhang their advance width.

actualBoundingBoxRight attribute

The distance parallel to the baseline from the alignment point given by the textAlign attribute to the right side of the bounding rectangle of the given text, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating a distance going right from the given alignment point.

fontBoundingBoxAscent attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the top of the highest bounding rectangle of all the fonts used to render the text, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating a distance going up from the given baseline.

This value and the next are useful when rendering a background that must have a consistent height even if the exact text being rendered changes. The actualBoundingBoxAscent attribute (and its corresponding attribute for the descent) are useful when drawing a bounding box around specific text.

fontBoundingBoxDescent attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the bottom of the lowest bounding rectangle of all the fonts used to render the text, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating a distance going down from the given baseline.

actualBoundingBoxAscent attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the top of the bounding rectangle of the given text, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating a distance going up from the given baseline.

This number can vary greatly based on the input text, even if the first font specified covers all the characters in the input. For example, the actualBoundingBoxAscent of a lowercase "o" from an alphabetic baseline would be less than that of an uppercase "F". The value can easily be negative; for example, the distance from the top of the em box (textBaseline value "top") to the top of the bounding rectangle when the given text is just a single comma "," would likely (unless the font is quite unusual) be negative.

actualBoundingBoxDescent attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the bottom of the bounding rectangle of the given text, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating a distance going down from the given baseline.

emHeightAscent attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the highest top of the em squares in the line box, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating that the given baseline is below the top of that em square (so this value will usually be positive). Zero if the given baseline is the top of that em square; half the font size if the given baseline is the middle of that em square.

emHeightDescent attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the lowest bottom of the em squares in the line box, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating that the given baseline is below the bottom of that em square (so this value will usually be negative). (Zero if the given baseline is the bottom of that em square.)

hangingBaseline attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the hanging baseline of the line box, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating that the given baseline is below the hanging baseline. (Zero if the given baseline is the hanging baseline.)

alphabeticBaseline attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the alphabetic baseline of the line box, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating that the given baseline is below the alphabetic baseline. (Zero if the given baseline is the alphabetic baseline.)

ideographicBaseline attribute

The distance from the horizontal line indicated by the textBaseline attribute to the ideographic baseline of the line box, in CSS pixels; positive numbers indicating that the given baseline is below the ideographic baseline. (Zero if the given baseline is the ideographic baseline.)

Glyphs rendered using fillText() and strokeText() can spill out of the box given by the font size (the em square size) and the width returned by measureText() (the text width). Authors are encouraged to use the bounding box values described above if this is an issue.

A future version of the 2D context API may provide a way to render fragments of documents, rendered using CSS, straight to the canvas. This would be provided in preference to a dedicated way of doing multiline layout.

4.12.5.1.12 Drawing paths to the canvas

Objects that implement the CanvasDrawPath interface have a current default path. There is only one current default path, it is not part of the drawing state. The current default path is a path , as described above.

context . beginPath()

Resets the current default path.

context . fill( [ fillRule ] )
context . fill(path [, fillRule ] )

Fills the subpaths of the current default path or the given path with the current fill style, obeying the given fill rule.

context . stroke()
context . stroke(path)

Strokes the subpaths of the current default path or the given path with the current stroke style.

context . clip( [ fillRule ] )
context . clip(path [, fillRule ] )

Further constrains the clipping region to the current default path or the given path, using the given fill rule to determine what points are in the path.

context . resetClip()

Unconstrains the clipping region.

context . isPointInPath(x, y [, fillRule ] )
context . isPointInPath(path, x, y [, fillRule ] )

Returns true if the given point is in the current default path or the given path, using the given fill rule to determine what points are in the path.

context . isPointInStroke(x, y)
context . isPointInStroke(path, x, y)

Returns true if the given point would be in the region covered by the stroke of the current default path or the given path, given the current stroke style.

Spec bugs: 28217

The beginPath() method must empty the list of subpaths in the context's current default path so that the it once again has zero subpaths.

Where the following method definitions use the term intended path, it means the Path2D argument, if one was provided, or the current default path otherwise.

When the intended path is a Path2D object, the coordinates and lines of its subpaths must be transformed according to the current transformation matrix on the object implementing the CanvasTransform interface when used by these methods (without affecting the Path2D object itself). When the intended path is the current default path, it is not affected by the transform. (This is because transformations already affect the current default path when it is constructed, so applying it when it is painted as well would result in a double transformation.)

The fill() method must fill all the subpaths of the intended path, using fillStyle, and using the fill rule indicated by the fillRule argument. Open subpaths must be implicitly closed when being filled (without affecting the actual subpaths).

The stroke() method must trace the intended path, using this CanvasPathDrawingStyles object for the line styles, and then fill the resulting path using the strokeStyle attribute, using the non-zero winding rule.

As a result of how the algorithm to trace a path is defined, overlapping parts of the paths in one stroke operation are treated as if their union was what was painted.

The stroke style is affected by the transformation during painting, even if the intended path is the current default path.

Paths, when filled or stroked, must be painted without affecting the current default path or any Path2D objects, and must be subject to shadow effects, global alpha, the clipping region, and global composition operators. (The effect of transformations is described above and varies based on which path is being used.)


The clip() method must create a new clipping region by calculating the intersection of the current clipping region and the area described by the intended path, using the fill rule indicated by the fillRule argument. Open subpaths must be implicitly closed when computing the clipping region, without affecting the actual subpaths. The new clipping region replaces the current clipping region.

When the context is initialized, the clipping region must be set to the largest infinite surface (i.e. by default, no clipping occurs).

The resetClip() method must create a new clipping region that is the largest infinite surface. The new clipping region replaces the current clipping region.


The isPointInPath() method must return true if the point given by the x and y coordinates passed to the method, when treated as coordinates in the canvas coordinate space unaffected by the current transformation, is inside the intended path as determined by the fill rule indicated by the fillRule argument; and must return false otherwise. Open subpaths must be implicitly closed when computing the area inside the path, without affecting the actual subpaths. Points on the path itself must be considered to be inside the path. If either of the arguments is infinite or NaN, then the method must return false.


The isPointInStroke() method must return true if the point given by the x and y coordinates passed to the method, when treated as coordinates in the canvas coordinate space unaffected by the current transformation, is inside the path that results from tracing the intended path, using the non-zero winding rule, and using the CanvasPathDrawingStyles interface for the line styles; and must return false otherwise. Points on the resulting path must be considered to be inside the path. If either of the arguments is infinite or NaN, then the method must return false.


This canvas element has a couple of checkboxes. The path-related commands are highlighted:

<canvas height=400 width=750>
 <label><input type=checkbox id=showA> Show As</label>
 <label><input type=checkbox id=showB> Show Bs</label>
 <!-- ... -->
</canvas>
<script>
 function drawCheckbox(context, element, x, y, paint) {
   context.save();
   context.font = '10px sans-serif';
   context.textAlign = 'left';
   context.textBaseline = 'middle';
   var metrics = context.measureText(element.labels[0].textContent);
   if (paint) {
     context.beginPath();
     context.strokeStyle = 'black';
     context.rect(x-5, y-5, 10, 10);
     context.stroke();
     context.addHitRegion({ control: element });
     if (element.checked) {
       context.fillStyle = 'black';
       context.fill();
     }
     context.fillText(element.labels[0].textContent, x+5, y);
   }
   context.beginPath();
   context.rect(x-7, y-7, 12 + metrics.width+2, 14);

   context.drawFocusIfNeeded(element);
   context.restore();
 }
 function drawBase() { /* ... */ }
 function drawAs() { /* ... */ }
 function drawBs() { /* ... */ }
 function redraw() {
   var canvas = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0];
   var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
   context.clearRect(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);
   drawCheckbox(context, document.getElementById('showA'), 20, 40, true);
   drawCheckbox(context, document.getElementById('showB'), 20, 60, true);
   drawBase();
   if (document.getElementById('showA').checked)
     drawAs();
   if (document.getElementById('showB').checked)
     drawBs();
 }
 function processClick(event) {
   var canvas = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0];
   var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
   var x = event.clientX;
   var y = event.clientY;
   var node = event.target;
   while (node) {
     x -= node.offsetLeft - node.scrollLeft;
     y -= node.offsetTop - node.scrollTop;
     node = node.offsetParent;
   }
   drawCheckbox(context, document.getElementById('showA'), 20, 40, false);
   if (context.isPointInPath(x, y))
     document.getElementById('showA').checked = !(document.getElementById('showA').checked);
   drawCheckbox(context, document.getElementById('showB'), 20, 60, false);
   if (context.isPointInPath(x, y))
     document.getElementById('showB').checked = !(document.getElementById('showB').checked);
   redraw();
 }
 document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0].addEventListener('focus', redraw, true);
 document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0].addEventListener('blur', redraw, true);
 document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0].addEventListener('change', redraw, true);
 document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0].addEventListener('click', processClick, false);
 redraw();
</script>
4.12.5.1.13 Drawing focus rings and scrolling paths into view
context . drawFocusIfNeeded(element)
context . drawFocusIfNeeded(path, element)

If the given element is focused, draws a focus ring around the current default path or the given path, following the platform conventions for focus rings.

context . scrollPathIntoView()
context . scrollPathIntoView(path)

Scrolls the current default path or the given path into view. This is especially useful on devices with small screens, where the whole canvas might not be visible at once.

Objects that implement the CanvasUserInterface interface provide the following methods to control drawing focus rings and scrolling paths into view.

The drawFocusIfNeeded(element) method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. If element is not focused or is not a descendant of the element with whose context the method is associated, then abort these steps.

  2. Draw a focus ring of the appropriate style along the intended path, following platform conventions.

    Some platforms only draw focus rings around elements that have been focused from the keyboard, and not those focused from the mouse. Other platforms simply don't draw focus rings around some elements at all unless relevant accessibility features are enabled. This API is intended to follow these conventions. User agents that implement distinctions based on the manner in which the element was focused are encouraged to classify focus driven by the focus() method based on the kind of user interaction event from which the call was triggered (if any).

    The focus ring should not be subject to the shadow effects, the global alpha, the global composition operators, or any of the members in the CanvasFillStrokeStyles, CanvasPathDrawingStyles, CanvasTextDrawingStyles interfaces, but should be subject to the clipping region. (The effect of transformations is described above and varies based on which path is being used.)

  3. Inform the user that the focus is at the location given by the intended path. User agents may wait until the next time the event loop reaches its update the rendering step to optionally inform the user.

User agents should not implicitly close open subpaths in the intended path when drawing the focus ring.

This might be a moot point, however. For example, if the focus ring is drawn as an axis-aligned bounding rectangle around the points in the intended path, then whether the subpaths are closed or not has no effect. This specification intentionally does not specify precisely how focus rings are to be drawn: user agents are expected to honor their platform's native conventions.


The scrollPathIntoView() method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. Let the specified rectangle be the rectangle of the bounding box of the intended path.

  2. Let notional child be a hypothetical element that is a rendered child of the canvas element whose dimensions are those of the specified rectangle.

  3. Scroll notional child into view with the align to top flag set.

  4. Optionally, inform the user that the caret or selection (or both) cover the specified rectangle of the canvas. The user agent may wait until the next time the event loop reaches its update the rendering step to optionally inform the user.

"Inform the user", as used in this section, does not imply any persistent state change. It could mean, for instance, calling a system accessibility API to notify assistive technologies such as magnification tools so that the user's magnifier moves to the given area of the canvas. However, it does not associate the path with the element, or provide a region for tactile feedback, etc. To persistently associate a region with information provided to accessibility tools, use the addHitRegion() API.

4.12.5.1.14 Drawing images

Objects that implement the CanvasDrawImage interface have the drawImage method to draw images.

This method can be invoked with three different sets of arguments:

context . drawImage(image, dx, dy)
context . drawImage(image, dx, dy, dw, dh)
context . drawImage(image, sx, sy, sw, sh, dx, dy, dw, dh)

Draws the given image onto the canvas. The arguments are interpreted as follows:

The sx and sy parameters give the x and y coordinates of the source rectangle; the sw and sh arguments give the width and height of the source rectangle; the dx and dy give the x and y coordinates of the destination rectangle; and the dw and dh arguments give the width and height of the destination rectangle.

If the image isn't yet fully decoded, then nothing is drawn. If the image is a canvas with no data, throws an "InvalidStateError" DOMException.

When the drawImage() method is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Check the usability of the image argument. If this returns aborted, then an exception has been thrown and the method doesn't return anything; abort these steps. If it returns bad, then abort these steps without drawing anything. Otherwise it returns good; continue with these steps.

  2. Establish the source and destination rectangles as follows:

    If not specified, the dw and dh arguments must default to the values of sw and sh, interpreted such that one CSS pixel in the image is treated as one unit in the output bitmap's coordinate space. If the sx, sy, sw, and sh arguments are omitted, they must default to 0, 0, the image's intrinsic width in image pixels, and the image's intrinsic height in image pixels, respectively. If the image has no intrinsic dimensions, the concrete object size must be used instead, as determined using the CSS "Concrete Object Size Resolution" algorithm, with the specified size having neither a definite width nor height, nor any additional constraints, the object's intrinsic properties being those of the image argument, and the default object size being the size of the output bitmap. [CSSIMAGES]

    The source rectangle is the rectangle whose corners are the four points (sx, sy), (sx+sw, sy), (sx+sw, sy+sh), (sx, sy+sh).

    The destination rectangle is the rectangle whose corners are the four points (dx, dy), (dx+dw, dy), (dx+dw, dy+dh), (dx, dy+dh).

    When the source rectangle is outside the source image, the source rectangle must be clipped to the source image and the destination rectangle must be clipped in the same proportion.

    When the destination rectangle is outside the destination image (the output bitmap), the pixels that land outside the output bitmap are discarded, as if the destination was an infinite canvas whose rendering was clipped to the dimensions of the output bitmap.

  3. If one of the sw or sh arguments is zero, abort these steps. Nothing is painted.

  4. Paint the region of the image argument specified by the source rectangle on the region of the rendering context's output bitmap specified by the destination rectangle, after applying the current transformation matrix to the destination rectangle.

    The image data must be processed in the original direction, even if the dimensions given are negative.

    When scaling up, if the imageSmoothingEnabled attribute is set to true, the user agent should attempt to apply a smoothing algorithm to the image data when it is scaled. User agents which support multiple filtering algorithms may use the value of the imageSmoothingQuality attribute to guide the choice of filtering algorithm when the imageSmoothingEnabled attribute is set to true. Otherwise, the image must be rendered using nearest-neighbor interpolation.

    This specification does not define the precise algorithm to use when scaling an image down, or when scaling an image up when the imageSmoothingEnabled attribute is set to true.

    When a canvas element is drawn onto itself, the drawing model requires the source to be copied before the image is drawn, so it is possible to copy parts of a canvas element onto overlapping parts of itself.

    If the original image data is a bitmap image, the value painted at a point in the destination rectangle is computed by filtering the original image data. The user agent may use any filtering algorithm (for example bilinear interpolation or nearest-neighbor). When the filtering algorithm requires a pixel value from outside the original image data, it must instead use the value from the nearest edge pixel. (That is, the filter uses 'clamp-to-edge' behavior.) When the filtering algorithm requires a pixel value from outside the source rectangle but inside the original image data, then the value from the original image data must be used.

    Thus, scaling an image in parts or in whole will have the same effect. This does mean that when sprites coming from a single sprite sheet are to be scaled, adjacent images in the sprite sheet can interfere. This can be avoided by ensuring each sprite in the sheet is surrounded by a border of transparent black, or by copying sprites to be scaled into temporary canvas elements and drawing the scaled sprites from there.

    Images are painted without affecting the current path, and are subject to shadow effects, global alpha, the clipping region, and global composition operators.

  5. If the image argument is not origin-clean, set the CanvasRenderingContext2D's origin-clean flag to false.

4.12.5.1.15 Hit regions

Objects that implement the CanvasHitRegion interface provide the following methods to control hit regions on the canvas.

A hit region list is a list of hit regions for a bitmap.

Each hit region consists of the following information:

context . addHitRegion(options)

Adds a hit region to the bitmap. The argument is an object with the following members:

path (default null)
A Path2D object that describes the pixels that form part of the region. If this member is not provided or is set to null, the current default path is used instead.
fillRule (default "nonzero")
The fill rule to use when determining which pixels are inside the path.
id (default empty string)
The ID to use for this region. This is used in MouseEvent events on the canvas (event.region) and as a way to reference this region in later calls to addHitRegion().
parentID (default null)
The ID of the parent region, for purposes of navigation by accessibility tools and for cursor fallback.
cursor (default "inherit")
The cursor to use when the mouse is over this region. The value "inherit" means to use the cursor for the parent region (as specified by the parentID member), if any, or to use the canvas element's cursor if the region has no parent.
control (default null)
An element (that is a descendant of the canvas) to which events are to be routed, and which accessibility tools are to use as a surrogate for describing and interacting with this region.
label (default null)
A text label for accessibility tools to use as a description of this region, if there is no control.
role (default null)
An ARIA role for accessibility tools to use to determine how to represent this region, if there is no control.

Hit regions can be used for a variety of purposes:

context . removeHitRegion(id)

Removes a hit region (and all its descendants) from the canvas bitmap. The argument is the ID of a region added using addHitRegion().

The pixels that were covered by this region and its descendants are effectively cleared by this operation, leaving the regions non-interactive. In particular, regions that occupied the same pixels before the removed regions were added, overlapping them, do not resume their previous role.

context . clearHitRegions()

Removes all hit regions from the canvas bitmap.

A hit region A is an ancestor region of a hit region B if B has a parent and its parent is either A or another hit region for which A is an ancestor region.

The region identified by the ID ID in a bitmap bitmap is the value returned by the following algorithm (which can return a hit region or nothing):

  1. If ID is null, return nothing and abort these steps.

  2. Let list be the hit region list associated with bitmap.

  3. If there is a hit region in list whose ID is a case-sensitive match for ID, then return that hit region and abort these steps.

  4. Otherwise, return nothing.

The region representing the control control for a bitmap bitmap is the value returned by the following algorithm (which can return a hit region or nothing):

  1. Let list be the hit region list associated with bitmap.

  2. If there is a hit region in list whose control is control, then return that hit region and abort these steps.

  3. Otherwise, return nothing.

The control represented by a region region for a canvas element ancestor is the value returned by the following algorithm (which can return an element or nothing):

  1. If region has no control, return nothing and abort these steps.

  2. Let control be region's control.

  3. If control is not a descendant of ancestor, then return nothing and abort these steps.

  4. If control is no longer a supported interactive canvas fallback element, then return nothing and abort these steps.

  5. Otherwise, return control.

The cursor for a hit region region of a canvas element ancestor is the value returned by the following algorithm:

  1. Loop: If region has a cursor specification other than "inherit", then return that hit region's cursor specification and abort these steps.

  2. If region has a parent, then let region be that hit region's parent, and return to the step labeled loop.

  3. Otherwise, return the used value of the 'cursor' property for the canvas element, if any; if there isn't one, return 'auto'.

The region for a pixel pixel on a bitmap bitmap is the value returned by the following algorithm (which can return a hit region or nothing):

  1. Let list be the hit region list associated with bitmap.

  2. If there is a hit region in list whose set of pixels contains pixel, then return that hit region and abort these steps.

  3. Otherwise, return nothing.

To clear regions that cover the pixels pixels on a bitmap bitmap, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Let list be the hit region list associated with bitmap.

  2. Remove all pixels in pixels from the set of pixels of each hit region in list.

  3. Garbage-collect the regions of bitmap.

To garbage-collect the regions of a bitmap bitmap, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Let list be the hit region list associated with bitmap.

  2. Loop: Let victim be the first hit region in list to have an empty set of pixels and a zero child count, if any. If there is no such hit region, abort these steps.

  3. If victim has a parent, then decrement that hit region's child count by one.

  4. Remove victim from list.

  5. Jump back to the step labeled loop.

Adding a new region and calling clearRect() are the two ways this clearing algorithm can be invoked. The hit region list itself is also reset when the rendering context is reset, e.g. when the dimensions of the bitmap are changed.


An element is a supported interactive canvas fallback element if it is one of the following:


When the addHitRegion() method is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Let arguments be the dictionary object provided as the method's argument.

  2. If the arguments object's path member is not null, let source path be the path member's value. Otherwise, let it be the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's current default path.

  3. Transform all the coordinates and lines in source path by the current transform matrix, if the arguments object's path member is not null.

  4. Let specified pixels be the pixels contained in source path, using the fill rule indicated by the fillRule member.

  5. Remove from specified pixels any pixels not contained within the clipping region.

  6. If the arguments object's id member is the empty string, let it be null instead.

  7. If the arguments object's id member is not null, then let previous region for this ID be the region identified by the ID given by the id member's value in this CanvasRenderingContext2D, if any. If the id member is null or no such region currently exists, let previous region for this ID be null.

  8. If the arguments object's parentID member is the empty string, let it be null instead.

  9. If the arguments object's parentID member is not null, then let parent region be the region identified by the ID given by the parentID member's value in the CanvasRenderingContext2D, if any. If the parentID member is null or no such region currently exists, let parent region be null.

  10. If the arguments object's label member is the empty string, let it be null instead.

  11. If any of the following conditions are met, throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  12. If the parentID member is not null but parent region is null, then throw a "NotFoundError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  13. If any of the following conditions are met, throw a "SyntaxError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  14. Let region be a newly created hit region, with its information configured as follows:

    Hit region's set of pixels

    The specified pixels

    Hit region's bounding circumference

    A user-agent-defined shape that wraps the pixels contained in source path. (In the simplest case, this can just be the bounding rectangle; this specification allows it to be any shape in order to allow other interfaces.)

    Hit region's ID

    If the arguments object's id member is not null: the value of the id member. Otherwise, region has no id.

    Hit region's parent

    If parent region is not null: parent region. Otherwise, region has no parent.

    Hit region's child count

    Initially zero.

    Hit region's cursor specification

    If the arguments object's cursor member is not null: the value of the cursor member. Otherwise, the string "inherit".

    Hit region's control

    If the arguments object's control member is not null: the value of the control member. Otherwise, region has no control.

    Hit region's label

    If the arguments object's label member is not null: the value of the label member. Otherwise, region has no label.

    Hit region's ARIA role

    If the arguments object's role member is not null: the value of the role member (which might be the empty string). Otherwise, if the arguments object's label member is not null: the empty string. Otherwise, region has no ARIA role.

  15. If the arguments object's cursor member is not null, then act as if a CSS rule for the canvas element setting its 'cursor' property had been seen, whose value was the hit region's cursor specification.

    For example, if the user agent prefetches cursor values, this would cause that to happen in response to an appropriately-formed addHitRegion() call.

  16. If there is a previous region with this ID, remove it, and all hit regions for which it is an ancestor region, from the CanvasRenderingContext2D's hit region list; then, if it had a parent region, decrement that hit region's child count by one.

  17. If there is a parent region, increment its hit region's child count by one.

  18. Clear regions that cover the pixels in region's set of pixels on this CanvasRenderingContext2D.

  19. Add region to the CanvasRenderingContext2D's hit region list.

When the removeHitRegion() method is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Let region be the region identified by the ID given by the method's argument in the CanvasRenderingContext2D's hit region list. If no such region currently exists, abort these steps.

    If the method's argument is the empty string, then no region will match.

  2. Remove region, and all hit regions for which it is an ancestor region, from the CanvasRenderingContext2D's hit region list; then, if it had a parent region, decrement that hit region's child count by one.

  3. Garbage-collect the regions of the CanvasRenderingContext2D.

When the clearHitRegions() method is invoked, the user agent must remove all the hit regions from the CanvasRenderingContext2D's hit region list.


The MouseEvent interface is extended to support hit regions:

partial interface MouseEvent {
  readonly attribute DOMString? region;
};

partial dictionary MouseEventInit {
  DOMString? region = null;
};
event . region

If the mouse was over a hit region, then this returns the hit region's ID, if it has one.

Otherwise, returns null.

The region attribute on MouseEvent objects must return the value it was initialized to. It represents the hit region's ID if the mouse was over a hit region when the event was fired.

When a MouseEvent is to be fired at a canvas element by the user agent in response to a pointing device action other than a click (e.g. a mousedown event or a mousemove event), the user agent must run the canvas MouseEvent rerouting steps immediately prior to dispatching the event. This does not affect default actions (so for instance, if the event gets rerouted to an element that has a default action for mousemove events, this default action doesn't trigger).

Actual clicks are handled by the run authentic click activation steps, which also invoke these steps.

The canvas MouseEvent rerouting steps are as follows. If these steps say to act as normal, that means that the event must be fired as it would have had these requirements not been applied.

  1. If the pointing device is not indicating a pixel on the canvas, then act as normal and abort these steps.

  2. If the canvas element has no hit region list, then act as normal and abort these steps.

  3. Let pixel be the pixel indicated by the pointing device.

  4. Let region be the hit region that is the region for the pixel pixel on this canvas element's bitmap, if any.

  5. If there is no region, then act as normal and abort these steps.

  6. Let id be the region's ID, if any.

  7. If there is an id, then initialize the event object's region attribute to id.

  8. Let control be the control represented by region for this canvas element, if any.

  9. If there is a control, then target the event object at control instead of the canvas element.

  10. Continue dispatching the event, but with the updated event object and target as given in the above steps.


The Touch interface is extended to support hit regions also: [TOUCH]

partial interface Touch {
  readonly attribute DOMString? region;
};
touch . region

If the touch point was over a hit region when it was first placed on the surface, then this returns the hit region's ID, if it has one.

Otherwise, returns null.

The region attribute on a Touch object representing a touch point T must return the value obtained by running the following algorithm when T was first placed on the surface: [TOUCH]

  1. If the touch point is not on a pixel on the canvas, then return null and abort these steps.

  2. If the canvas element has no hit region list, then return null and abort these steps.

  3. Let pixel be the pixel that the touch point is on.

  4. Let region be the hit region that is the region for the pixel pixel on this canvas element's bitmap, if any.

  5. If there is no region, then return null and abort these steps.

  6. Let id be the region's ID, if any, or else null.

  7. Return id.


When a user's pointing device cursor is positioned over a canvas element, user agents should render the pointing device cursor according to the cursor specification described by the cursor for the hit region that is the region for the pixel that the pointing device designates on the canvas element's bitmap.


User agents are encouraged to make use of the information present in a canvas element's hit region list to improve the accessibility of canvas elements.

Each hit region should be handled in a fashion equivalent to a node in a virtual DOM tree rooted at the canvas element. The hierarchy of this virtual DOM tree must match the hierarchy of the hit regions, as described by the parent of each region. Regions without a parent must be treated as children of the canvas element for the purpose of this virtual DOM tree. For each node in such a DOM tree, the hit region's bounding circumference gives the region of the screen to use when representing the node (if appropriate).

The semantics of a hit region for the purposes of this virtual DOM tree are those of the the control represented by the region, if it has one, or else of a non-interactive element whose ARIA role, if any, is that given by the hit region's ARIA role, and whose textual representation, if any, is given by the hit region's label.

For the purposes of accessibility tools, when an element C is a descendant of a canvas element and there is a region representing the control C for that canvas element's bitmap, then the element's position relative to the document should be presented as if it was that region in the canvas element's virtual DOM tree.

The semantics of a hit region for the purposes of this virtual DOM tree are those of the the control represented by the region, if it has one, or else of a non-interactive element whose ARIA role, if any, is that given by the hit region's ARIA role, and whose textual representation, if any, is given by the hit region's label.

Thus, for instance, a user agent on a touch-screen device could provide haptic feedback when the user crosses over a hit region's bounding circumference, and then read the hit region's label to the user. Similarly, a desktop user agent with a virtual accessibility focus separate from the keyboard input focus could allow the user to navigate through the hit regions, using the virtual DOM tree described above to enable hierarchical navigation. When an interactive control inside the canvas element gains focus, if the control has a corresponding region, then that hit region's bounding circumference could be used to determine what area of the display to magnify.

4.12.5.1.16 Pixel manipulation
imagedata = new ImageData(sw, sh)
imagedata = context . createImageData(sw, sh)

Returns an ImageData object with the given dimensions. All the pixels in the returned object are transparent black.

Throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException if either of the width or height arguments are zero.

imagedata = context . createImageData(imagedata)

Returns an ImageData object with the same dimensions as the argument. All the pixels in the returned object are transparent black.

imagedata = new ImageData(data, sw [, sh ] )

Returns an ImageData object using the data provided in the Uint8ClampedArray argument, interpreted using the given dimensions.

As each pixel in the data is represented by four numbers, the length of the data needs to be a multiple of four times the given width. If the height is provided as well, then the length needs to be exactly the width times the height times 4.

Throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException if the given data and dimensions can't be interpreted consistently, or if either dimension is zero.

imagedata = context . getImageData(sx, sy, sw, sh)

Returns an ImageData object containing the image data for the given rectangle of the bitmap.

Throws an "IndexSizeError" DOMException if the either of the width or height arguments are zero.

imagedata . width
imagedata . height

Returns the actual dimensions of the data in the ImageData object, in pixels.

imagedata . data

Returns the one-dimensional array containing the data in RGBA order, as integers in the range 0 to 255.

context . putImageData(imagedata, dx, dy [, dirtyX, dirtyY, dirtyWidth, dirtyHeight ] )

Paints the data from the given ImageData object onto the bitmap. If a dirty rectangle is provided, only the pixels from that rectangle are painted.

The globalAlpha and globalCompositeOperation attributes, as well as the shadow attributes, are ignored for the purposes of this method call; pixels in the canvas are replaced wholesale, with no composition, alpha blending, no shadows, etc.

Throws an "InvalidStateError" DOMException if the imagedata object's data's [[Detached]] internal slot value is true.

Objects that implement the CanvasImageData interface provide the following methods for reading and writing pixel data to the bitmap.

The ImageData() constructors and the createImageData() methods are used to instantiate new ImageData objects.

ImageData objects are cloneable objects.

Each ImageData object's [[Clone]] internal method, given targetRealm and memory, must run these steps:

  1. Let inputData be the value of this's data attribute.

  2. Let clonedData be ? StructuredClone(inputData, targetRealm, memory).

  3. Return the result of creating an ImageData object, with parameter pixelsPerRow set to the value of this's width attribute, rows set to the value of this's height attribute, and using clonedData.

When the ImageData() constructor is invoked with two numeric arguments sw and sh, it must create an ImageData object with parameter pixelsPerRow set to sw, and rows set to sh. The image data of the newly created ImageData object must be intializedzed to transparent black. If both sw and sh are non-zero, return the new ImageData object. If one or both of sw and sh are zero, then the constructor must throw an "IndexSizeError" DOMException instead.

When the ImageData() constructor is invoked with its first argument being an Uint8ClampedArray source and its second and optional third arguments being numeric arguments sw and sh, it must run the following steps:

  1. Let length be the number of bytes in source.

  2. If length is not a non-zero integral multiple of four, throw an "InvalidStateError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  3. Let length be length divided by four.

  4. If length is not an integral multiple of sw, throw an "IndexSizeError" DOMException and abort these steps.

    At this step, the length is guaranteed to be greater than zero (otherwise the second step above would have aborted the steps), so if sw is zero, this step will throw the exception and abort these steps.

  5. Let height be length divided by sw.

  6. If the sh argument was not omitted, and its value is not equal to height, then throw an "IndexSizeError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  7. Create an ImageData object, with parameter pixelsPerRow set to sw, rows set to sh, and using source. Return the newly created ImageData object.

    The resulting object's data is not a copy of source, it's the actual Uint8ClampedArray object passed as the first argument to the constructor.

When the createImageData() method is invoked with two numeric arguments sw and sh, it must create an ImageData object, with parameter pixelsPerRow set to the absolute magnitude of sw, and parameter rows set to the absolute magnitude of sh. Initialize the image data of the new ImageData object to transparent black. If both sw and sh are non-zero, return the new ImageData object. If one or both of sw and sh are zero, then throw an "IndexSizeError" DOMException instead.

When the createImageData() method is invoked with a single imagedata argument, it must create an ImageData object, with parameter pixelsPerRow set to the value of the width attribute of the ImageData object passed as the argument, and the rows parameter set to the value of the height attribute. Initialize the image data of the new ImageData object to transparent black. Return the newly created ImageData object.

The getImageData(sx, sy, sw, sh) method must, if either the sw or sh arguments are zero, throw an "IndexSizeError" DOMException; otherwise, if the CanvasRenderingContext2D's origin-clean flag is set to false, it must throw a "SecurityError" DOMException; otherwise, it must create an ImageData object, with parameter pixelsPerRow set to sw, and parameter rows set to sh. Set the pixel values of the image data of the newly created ImageData object to represent the output bitmap for the area of that bitmap denoted by the rectangle whose corners are the four points (sx, sy), (sx+sw, sy), (sx+sw, sy+sh), (sx, sy+sh), in the bitmap's coordinate space units. Pixels outside the output bitmap must be set to transparent black. Pixel values must not be premultiplied by alpha.

When the user agent is required to create an ImageData object, given a positive integer number of rows rows, a positive integer number of pixels per row pixelsPerRow, and an optional Uint8ClampedArray source, it must run the following steps.

  1. Let imageData be a new uninitialized ImageData object.

  2. If source is specified, assign the data attribute of imageData to source.

  3. If source is not specified, initialize the data attribute of imageData to a new Uint8ClampedArray object. The Uint8ClampedArray object must use a new Canvas Pixel ArrayBuffer for its storage, and must have a zero start offset and a length equal to the length of its storage, in bytes. The Canvas Pixel ArrayBuffer must have the correct size to store rows × pixelsPerRow pixels.

    If the Canvas Pixel ArrayBuffer cannot be allocated, rethrow the RangeError thrown by JavaScript, and abort these steps.

  4. Initialize the width attribute of imageData to pixelsPerRow.

  5. Initialize the height attribute of imageData to rows.

  6. Return imageData.

A Canvas Pixel ArrayBuffer is an ArrayBuffer whose data is represented in left-to-right order, row by row top to bottom, starting with the top left, with each pixel's red, green, blue, and alpha components being given in that order for each pixel. Each component of each pixel represented in this array must be in the range 0..255, representing the 8 bit value for that component. The components must be assigned consecutive indices starting with 0 for the top left pixel's red component.

The putImageData() method writes data from ImageData structures back to the rendering context's output bitmap. Its arguments are: imagedata, dx, dy, dirtyX, dirtyY, dirtyWidth, and dirtyHeight.

When the last four arguments to this method are omitted, they must be assumed to have the values 0, 0, the width member of the imagedata structure, and the height member of the imagedata structure, respectively.

When invoked, the method must act as follows:

  1. If the imagedata argument's data attribute value's [[Detached]] internal slot value is true, throw an "InvalidStateError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  2. If dirtyWidth is negative, let dirtyX be dirtyX+dirtyWidth, and let dirtyWidth be equal to the absolute magnitude of dirtyWidth.

    If dirtyHeight is negative, let dirtyY be dirtyY+dirtyHeight, and let dirtyHeight be equal to the absolute magnitude of dirtyHeight.

  3. If dirtyX is negative, let dirtyWidth be dirtyWidth+dirtyX, and let dirtyX be zero.

    If dirtyY is negative, let dirtyHeight be dirtyHeight+dirtyY, and let dirtyY be zero.

  4. If dirtyX+dirtyWidth is greater than the width attribute of the imagedata argument, let dirtyWidth be the value of that width attribute, minus the value of dirtyX.

    If dirtyY+dirtyHeight is greater than the height attribute of the imagedata argument, let dirtyHeight be the value of that height attribute, minus the value of dirtyY.

  5. If, after those changes, either dirtyWidth or dirtyHeight is negative or zero, stop these steps without affecting any bitmaps.

  6. For all integer values of x and y where dirtyX ≤ x < dirtyX+dirtyWidth and dirtyY ≤ y < dirtyY+dirtyHeight, copy the four channels of the pixel with coordinate (x, y) in the imagedata data structure's Canvas Pixel ArrayBuffer to the pixel with coordinate (dx+x, dy+y) in the rendering context's output bitmap.

The handling of pixel rounding when the specified coordinates are not integers is not defined by this specification, except that the following must result in no visible changes to the rendering:

context.putImageData(context.getImageData(x, y, w, h), p, q);

...for any value of x, y, w, and h and where p is the smaller of x and the sum of x and w, and q is the smaller of y and the sum of y and h; and except that the following two calls:

context.createImageData(w, h);
context.getImageData(0, 0, w, h);

...must return ImageData objects with the same dimensions as each other, for any value of w and h. In other words, while user agents may round the arguments of these methods, any rounding performed must be performed consistently for all of the methods described in this section. (The constructors only work with integer values.)

Due to the lossy nature of converting to and from premultiplied alpha color values, pixels that have just been set using putImageData() might be returned to an equivalent getImageData() as different values.

The current path, transformation matrix, shadow attributes, global alpha, the clipping region, and global composition operator must not affect the methods described in this section.

In the following example, the script generates an ImageData object so that it can draw onto it.

// canvas is a reference to a <canvas> element
var context = canvas.getContext('2d');

// create a blank slate
var data = context.createImageData(canvas.width, canvas.height);

// create some plasma
FillPlasma(data, 'green'); // green plasma

// add a cloud to the plasma
AddCloud(data, data.width/2, data.height/2); // put a cloud in the middle

// paint the plasma+cloud on the canvas
context.putImageData(data, 0, 0);

// support methods
function FillPlasma(data, color) { ... }
function AddCloud(data, x, y) { ... }

Here is an example of using getImageData() and putImageData() to implement an edge detection filter.

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <title>Edge detection demo</title>
  <script>
   var image = new Image();
   function init() {
     image.onload = demo;
     image.src = "image.jpeg";
   }
   function demo() {
     var canvas = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0];
     var context = canvas.getContext('2d');

     // draw the image onto the canvas
     context.drawImage(image, 0, 0);

     // get the image data to manipulate
     var input = context.getImageData(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);

     // get an empty slate to put the data into
     var output = context.createImageData(canvas.width, canvas.height);

     // alias some variables for convenience
     // In this case input.width and input.height
     // match canvas.width and canvas.height
     // but we'll use the former to keep the code generic.
     var w = input.width, h = input.height;
     var inputData = input.data;
     var outputData = output.data;

     // edge detection
     for (var y = 1; y < h-1; y += 1) {
       for (var x = 1; x < w-1; x += 1) {
         for (var c = 0; c < 3; c += 1) {
           var i = (y*w + x)*4 + c;
           outputData[i] = 127 + -inputData[i - w*4 - 4] -   inputData[i - w*4] - inputData[i - w*4 + 4] +
                                 -inputData[i - 4]       + 8*inputData[i]       - inputData[i + 4] +
                                 -inputData[i + w*4 - 4] -   inputData[i + w*4] - inputData[i + w*4 + 4];
         }
         outputData[(y*w + x)*4 + 3] = 255; // alpha
       }
     }

     // put the image data back after manipulation
     context.putImageData(output, 0, 0);
   }
  </script>
 </head>
 <body onload="init()">
  <canvas></canvas>
 </body>
</html>
4.12.5.1.17 Compositing
context . globalAlpha [ = value ]

Returns the current alpha value applied to rendering operations.

Can be set, to change the alpha value. Values outside of the range 0.0 .. 1.0 are ignored.

context . globalCompositeOperation [ = value ]

Returns the current composition operation, from the values defined in the Compositing and Blending specification. [COMPOSITE].

Can be set, to change the composition operation. Unknown values are ignored.

All drawing operations on an object which implements the CanvasCompositing interface are affected by the global compositing attributes, globalAlpha and globalCompositeOperation.

The globalAlpha attribute gives an alpha value that is applied to shapes and images before they are composited onto the output bitmap. The value must be in the range from 0.0 (fully transparent) to 1.0 (no additional transparency). If an attempt is made to set the attribute to a value outside this range, including Infinity and Not-a-Number (NaN) values, the attribute must retain its previous value. When the context is created, the globalAlpha attribute must initially have the value 1.0.

The globalCompositeOperation attribute sets the current composition operator, which controls how shapes and images are drawn onto the output bitmap, once they have had globalAlpha and the current transformation matrix applied. The possible values are those defined in the Compositing and Blending specification, and include the values source-over and copy. [COMPOSITE]

Spec bugs: 27313

These values are all case-sensitive — they must be used exactly as defined. User agents must not recognize values that are not a case-sensitive match for one of the values given in the Compositing and Blending specification. [COMPOSITE]

On setting, if the user agent does not recognize the specified value, it must be ignored, leaving the value of globalCompositeOperation unaffected. Otherwise, the attribute must be set to the given new value.

When the context is created, the globalCompositeOperation attribute must initially have the value source-over.

4.12.5.1.18 Image smoothing
context . imageSmoothingEnabled [ = value ]

Returns whether pattern fills and the drawImage() method will attempt to smooth images if their pixels don't line up exactly with the display, when scaling images up.

Can be set, to change whether images are smoothed (true) or not (false).

context . imageSmoothingQuality [ = value ]

Returns the current image-smoothing-quality preference.

Can be set, to change the preferred quality of image smoothing. Unknown values are ignored.

Objects that implement the CanvasImageSmoothing interface have attributes that control how image smoothing is performed.

The imageSmoothingEnabled attribute, on getting, must return the last value it was set to. On setting, it must be set to the new value. When the object implementing the CanvasImageSmoothing interface is created, the attribute must be set to true.

The imageSmoothingQuality attribute, on getting, must return the last value it was set to. On setting, it must be set to the new value. When the object implementing the CanvasImageSmoothing interface is created, the attribute must be set to " low".

4.12.5.1.19 Shadows

All drawing operations on an object which implements the CanvasShadowStyles interface are affected by the four global shadow attributes.

context . shadowColor [ = value ]

Returns the current shadow color.

Can be set, to change the shadow color. Values that cannot be parsed as CSS colors are ignored.

context . shadowOffsetX [ = value ]
context . shadowOffsetY [ = value ]

Returns the current shadow offset.

Can be set, to change the shadow offset. Values that are not finite numbers are ignored.

context . shadowBlur [ = value ]

Returns the current level of blur applied to shadows.

Can be set, to change the blur level. Values that are not finite numbers greater than or equal to zero are ignored.

The shadowColor attribute sets the color of the shadow.

When the context is created, the shadowColor attribute initially must be fully-transparent black.

On getting, the serialization of the color must be returned.

On setting, the new value must be parsed as a CSS <color> value and the color assigned. If the value cannot be parsed as a CSS <color> value then it must be ignored, and the attribute must retain its previous value. [CSSCOLOR]

The shadowOffsetX and shadowOffsetY attributes specify the distance that the shadow will be offset in the positive horizontal and positive vertical distance respectively. Their values are in coordinate space units. They are not affected by the current transformation matrix.

When the context is created, the shadow offset attributes must initially have the value 0.

On getting, they must return their current value. On setting, the attribute being set must be set to the new value, except if the value is infinite or NaN, in which case the new value must be ignored.

The shadowBlur attribute specifies the level of the blurring effect. (The units do not map to coordinate space units, and are not affected by the current transformation matrix.)

When the context is created, the shadowBlur attribute must initially have the value 0.

On getting, the attribute must return its current value. On setting the attribute must be set to the new value, except if the value is negative, infinite or NaN, in which case the new value must be ignored.

Shadows are only drawn if the opacity component of the alpha component of the color of shadowColor is non-zero and either the shadowBlur is non-zero, or the shadowOffsetX is non-zero, or the shadowOffsetY is non-zero.

When shadows are drawn, they must be rendered as follows:

  1. Let A be an infinite transparent black bitmap on which the source image for which a shadow is being created has been rendered.

  2. Let B be an infinite transparent black bitmap, with a coordinate space and an origin identical to A.

  3. Copy the alpha channel of A to B, offset by shadowOffsetX in the positive x direction, and shadowOffsetY in the positive y direction.

  4. If shadowBlur is greater than 0:

    1. Let σ be half the value of shadowBlur.

    2. Perform a 2D Gaussian Blur on B, using σ as the standard deviation.

    User agents may limit values of σ to an implementation-specific maximum value to avoid exceeding hardware limitations during the Gaussian blur operation.

  5. Set the red, green, and blue components of every pixel in B to the red, green, and blue components (respectively) of the color of shadowColor.

  6. Multiply the alpha component of every pixel in B by the alpha component of the color of shadowColor.

  7. The shadow is in the bitmap B, and is rendered as part of the drawing model described below.

If the current composition operation is copy, shadows effectively won't render (since the shape will overwrite the shadow).

4.12.5.1.20 Filters

All drawing operations on an object which implements the CanvasFilters interface are affected by the global filter attribute.

context . filter [ = value ]

Returns the current filter.

Can be set, to change the filter. Values that cannot be parsed as a <filter-function-list> value are ignored.

The filter attribute, on getting, must return the last value it was successfully set to. The value must not be re-serialized. On setting, if the new value is 'none' (not the empty string, null, or undefined), filters must be disabled for the context. Otherwise, the value must be parsed as a <filter-function-list> value. If the value cannot be parsed as a <filter-function-list> value, where using property-independent style sheet syntax like 'inherit' or 'initial' is considered an invalid value, then it must be ignored, and the attribute must retain its previous value. When creating the object implementing the CanvasFilters interface, the attribute must be set to 'none'.

A <filter-function-list> value consists of a sequence of one or more filter functions or references to SVG filters. The input to the filter is used as the input to the first item in the list. Subsequent items take the output of the previous item as their input. [FILTERS]

Coordinates used in the value of the filter attribute are interpreted such that one pixel is equivalent to one SVG user space unit and to one canvas coordinate space unit. Filter coordinates are not affected by the current transformation matrix. The current transformation matrix affects only the input to the filter. Filters are applied in the output bitmap's coordinate space.

When the value of the filter attribute defines lengths using percentages or using 'em' or 'ex' units, these must be interpreted relative to the computed value of the 'font-size' property of the font style source object at the time that the attribute is set, if it is an element. If the computed values are undefined for a particular case (e.g. because the font style source object is not an element or is not being rendered), then the relative keywords must be interpreted relative to the default value of the font attribute. The 'larger' and 'smaller' keywords are not supported.

If the value of the filter attribute refers to an SVG filter in the same document, and this SVG filter changes, the changed filter is used for the next draw operation.

If the value of the filter attribute refers to an SVG filter in an external resource document and that document is not loaded when a drawing operation is invoked, the drawing operation must proceed with no filtering.

4.12.5.1.21 Working with externally-defined SVG filters

This section is non-normative.

Since drawing is performed using filter value 'none' until an externally-defined filter has finished loading, authors might wish to determine whether such a filter has finished loading before proceeding with a drawing operation. One way to accomplish this is to load the externally-defined filter elsewhere within the same page in some element that sends a load event (for example, an SVG use element), and wait for the load event to be dispatched.

4.12.5.1.22 Drawing model

When a shape or image is painted, user agents must follow these steps, in the order given (or act as if they do):

  1. Render the shape or image onto an infinite transparent black bitmap, creating image A, as described in the previous sections. For shapes, the current fill, stroke, and line styles must be honored, and the stroke must itself also be subjected to the current transformation matrix.

  2. When the filter attribute is set to a value other than 'none' and all the externally-defined filters it references, if any, are in documents that are currently loaded, then use image A as the input to the filter, creating image B. Otherwise, let B be an alias for A.

  3. When shadows are drawn, render the shadow from image B, using the current shadow styles, creating image C.

  4. When shadows are drawn, multiply the alpha component of every pixel in C by globalAlpha.

  5. When shadows are drawn, composite C within the clipping region over the current output bitmap using the current composition operator.

  6. Multiply the alpha component of every pixel in B by globalAlpha.

  7. Composite B within the clipping region over the current output bitmap using the current composition operator.

When compositing onto the output bitmap, pixels that would fall outside of the output bitmap must be discarded.

4.12.5.1.23 Best practices

When a canvas is interactive, authors should include focusable elements in the element's fallback content corresponding to each focusable part of the canvas, as in the example above.

To expose text and interactive content on a canvas to users of accessibility tools, authors should use the addHitRegion() API. When rendering focus rings, to ensure that focus rings have the appearance of native focus rings, authors should use the drawFocusIfNeeded() method, passing it the element for which a ring is being drawn. This method only draws the focus ring if the element is focused, so that it can simply be called whenever drawing the element, without checking whether the element is focused or not first.

In addition to drawing focus rings, authors should use the scrollPathIntoView() method when an element in the canvas is focused, to make sure it is visible on the screen (if applicable).

Authors should avoid implementing text editing controls using the canvas element. Doing so has a large number of disadvantages:

This is a huge amount of work, and authors are most strongly encouraged to avoid doing any of it by instead using the input element, the textarea element, or the contenteditable attribute.

4.12.5.1.24 Examples

This section is non-normative.

Here is an example of a script that uses canvas to draw pretty glowing lines.

<canvas width="800" height="450"></canvas>
<script>

 var context = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0].getContext('2d');

 var lastX = context.canvas.width * Math.random();
 var lastY = context.canvas.height * Math.random();
 var hue = 0;
 function line() {
   context.save();
   context.translate(context.canvas.width/2, context.canvas.height/2);
   context.scale(0.9, 0.9);
   context.translate(-context.canvas.width/2, -context.canvas.height/2);
   context.beginPath();
   context.lineWidth = 5 + Math.random() * 10;
   context.moveTo(lastX, lastY);
   lastX = context.canvas.width * Math.random();
   lastY = context.canvas.height * Math.random();
   context.bezierCurveTo(context.canvas.width * Math.random(),
                         context.canvas.height * Math.random(),
                         context.canvas.width * Math.random(),
                         context.canvas.height * Math.random(),
                         lastX, lastY);

   hue = hue + 10 * Math.random();
   context.strokeStyle = 'hsl(' + hue + ', 50%, 50%)';
   context.shadowColor = 'white';
   context.shadowBlur = 10;
   context.stroke();
   context.restore();
 }
 setInterval(line, 50);

 function blank() {
   context.fillStyle = 'rgba(0,0,0,0.1)';
   context.fillRect(0, 0, context.canvas.width, context.canvas.height);
 }
 setInterval(blank, 40);

</script>

The 2D rendering context for canvas is often used for sprite-based games. The following example demonstrates this:

Here is the source for this example:

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<title>Blue Robot Demo</title>
<style>
  html { overflow: hidden; min-height: 200px; min-width: 380px; }
  body { height: 200px; position: relative; margin: 8px; }
  .buttons { position: absolute; bottom: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 4px; }
</style>
<canvas width="380" height="200"></canvas>
<script>
 var Landscape = function (context, width, height) {
   this.offset = 0;
   this.width = width;
   this.advance = function (dx) {
     this.offset += dx;
   };
   this.horizon = height * 0.7;
   // This creates the sky gradient (from a darker blue to white at the bottom)
   this.sky = context.createLinearGradient(0, 0, 0, this.horizon);
   this.sky.addColorStop(0.0, 'rgb(55,121,179)');
   this.sky.addColorStop(0.7, 'rgb(121,194,245)');
   this.sky.addColorStop(1.0, 'rgb(164,200,214)');
   // this creates the grass gradient (from a darker green to a lighter green)
   this.earth = context.createLinearGradient(0, this.horizon, 0, height);
   this.earth.addColorStop(0.0, 'rgb(81,140,20)');
   this.earth.addColorStop(1.0, 'rgb(123,177,57)');
   this.paintBackground = function (context, width, height) {
     // first, paint the sky and grass rectangles
     context.fillStyle = this.sky;
     context.fillRect(0, 0, width, this.horizon);
     context.fillStyle = this.earth;
     context.fillRect(0, this.horizon, width, height-this.horizon);
     // then, draw the cloudy banner
     // we make it cloudy by having the draw text off the top of the
     // canvas, and just having the blurred shadow shown on the canvas
     context.save();
     context.translate(width-((this.offset+(this.width*3.2)) % (this.width*4.0))+0, 0);
     context.shadowColor = 'white';
     context.shadowOffsetY = 30+this.horizon/3; // offset down on canvas
     context.shadowBlur = '5';
     context.fillStyle = 'white';
     context.textAlign = 'left';
     context.textBaseline = 'top';
     context.font = '20px sans-serif';
     context.fillText('WHATWG ROCKS', 10, -30); // text up above canvas
     context.restore();
     // then, draw the background tree
     context.save();
     context.translate(width-((this.offset+(this.width*0.2)) % (this.width*1.5))+30, 0);
     context.beginPath();
     context.fillStyle = 'rgb(143,89,2)';
     context.lineStyle = 'rgb(10,10,10)';
     context.lineWidth = 2;
     context.rect(0, this.horizon+5, 10, -50); // trunk
     context.fill();
     context.stroke();
     context.beginPath();
     context.fillStyle = 'rgb(78,154,6)';
     context.arc(5, this.horizon-60, 30, 0, Math.PI*2); // leaves
     context.fill();
     context.stroke();
     context.restore();
   };
   this.paintForeground = function (context, width, height) {
     // draw the box that goes in front
     context.save();
     context.translate(width-((this.offset+(this.width*0.7)) % (this.width*1.1))+0, 0);
     context.beginPath();
     context.rect(0, this.horizon - 5, 25, 25);
     context.fillStyle = 'rgb(220,154,94)';
     context.lineStyle = 'rgb(10,10,10)';
     context.lineWidth = 2;
     context.fill();
     context.stroke();
     context.restore();
   };
 };
</script>
<script>
 var BlueRobot = function () {
   this.sprites = new Image();
   this.sprites.src = 'blue-robot.png'; // this sprite sheet has 8 cells
   this.targetMode = 'idle';
   this.walk = function () {
     this.targetMode = 'walk';
   };
   this.stop = function () {
     this.targetMode = 'idle';
   };
   this.frameIndex = {
     'idle': [0], // first cell is the idle frame
     'walk': [1,2,3,4,5,6], // the walking animation is cells 1-6
     'stop': [7], // last cell is the stopping animation
   };
   this.mode = 'idle';
   this.frame = 0; // index into frameIndex
   this.tick = function () {
     // this advances the frame and the robot
     // the return value is how many pixels the robot has moved
     this.frame += 1;
     if (this.frame >= this.frameIndex[this.mode].length) {
       // we've reached the end of this animation cycle
       this.frame = 0;
       if (this.mode != this.targetMode) {
         // switch to next cycle
         if (this.mode == 'walk') {
           // we need to stop walking before we decide what to do next
           this.mode = 'stop';
         } else if (this.mode == 'stop') {
           if (this.targetMode == 'walk')
             this.mode = 'walk';
           else
             this.mode = 'idle';
         } else if (this.mode == 'idle') {
           if (this.targetMode == 'walk')
             this.mode = 'walk';
         }
       }
     }
     if (this.mode == 'walk')
       return 8;
     return 0;
   },
   this.paint = function (context, x, y) {
     if (!this.sprites.complete) return;
     // draw the right frame out of the sprite sheet onto the canvas
     // we assume each frame is as high as the sprite sheet
     // the x,y coordinates give the position of the bottom center of the sprite
     context.drawImage(this.sprites,
                       this.frameIndex[this.mode][this.frame] * this.sprites.height, 0, this.sprites.height, this.sprites.height,
                       x-this.sprites.height/2, y-this.sprites.height, this.sprites.height, this.sprites.height);
   };
 };
</script>
<script>
 var canvas = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0];
 var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
 var landscape = new Landscape(context, canvas.width, canvas.height);
 var blueRobot = new BlueRobot();
 // paint when the browser wants us to, using requestAnimationFrame()
 function paint() {
   context.clearRect(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);
   landscape.paintBackground(context, canvas.width, canvas.height);
   blueRobot.paint(context, canvas.width/2, landscape.horizon*1.1);
   landscape.paintForeground(context, canvas.width, canvas.height);
   requestAnimationFrame(paint);
 }
 paint();
 // but tick every 150ms, so that we don't slow down when we don't paint
 setInterval(function () {
   var dx = blueRobot.tick();
   landscape.advance(dx);
 }, 100);
</script>
<p class="buttons">
 <input type=button value="Walk" onclick="blueRobot.walk()">
 <input type=button value="Stop" onclick="blueRobot.stop()">
<footer>
 <small> Blue Robot Player Sprite by <a href="https://johncolburn.deviantart.com/">JohnColburn</a>.
 Licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 Unported license.</small>
 <small> This work is itself licensed under a <a rel="license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative
 Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License</a>.</small>
</footer>
4.12.5.2 The ImageBitmap rendering context

ImageBitmapRenderingContext is a performance-oriented interface that provides a low overhead method for displaying the contents of ImageBitmap objects. It uses transfer semantics to reduce overall memory consumption. It also streamlines performance by avoiding intermediate compositing, unlike the drawImage() method of CanvasRenderingContext2D.

interface ImageBitmapRenderingContext {
  readonly attribute HTMLCanvasElement canvas;
  void transferFromImageBitmap(ImageBitmap? bitmap);
};

dictionary ImageBitmapRenderingContextSettings {
  boolean alpha = true;
};
context = canvas . getContext('bitmaprenderer' [, { [ alpha: false ] } ] )

Returns an ImageBitmapRenderingContext object that is permanently bound to a particular canvas element.

If the alpha setting is provided and set to false, then the canvas is forced to always be opaque.

context . canvas

Returns the canvas element that the context is bound to.

context . transferFromImageBitmap(imageBitmap)

Transfers the underlying bitmap data from imageBitmap to context, and the bitmap becomes the contents of the canvas element to which context is bound.

context . transferFromImageBitmap( null)

Replaces contents of the canvas element to which context is bound with a transparent black bitmap whose size corresponds to the width and height content attributes of the canvas element.

The canvas attribute must return the value it was initialized to when the object was created.

An ImageBitmapRenderingContext object has an output bitmap, which is a reference to bitmap data.

An ImageBitmapRenderingContext object has a bitmap mode, which can be set to valid or blank. A value of valid indicates that the context's output bitmap refers to bitmap data that was acquired via transferFromImageBitmap(). A value blank indicates that the context's output bitmap is a default transparent bitmap.

An ImageBitmapRenderingContext object also has an alpha flag, which can be set to true or false. When an ImageBitmapRenderingContext object has its alpha flag set to false, the contents of the canvas element to which the context is bound are obtained by compositing the context's output bitmap onto an opaque black bitmap of the same size using the source-over composite operation. If the alpha flag is set to true, then the output bitmap is used as the contents of the canvas element to which the context is bound. [COMPOSITE]

The step of compositing over an opaque black bitmap should be elided whenever equivalent results can be obtained more efficiently by other means.


When a user agent is required to set an ImageBitmapRenderingContext's output bitmap, with a context argument that is an ImageBitmapRenderingContext object and an optional argument bitmap that refers to bitmap data, it must run the following steps:

  1. If a bitmap argument was not provided, run these substeps:

    1. Set context's bitmap mode to blank.

    2. Let canvas be the canvas element to which context is bound.

    3. Set context's output bitmap to be fully transparent black with an intrinsic width equal to the numeric value of canvas's width attribute and an intrinsic height equal to the numeric value of canvas's height attribute, those values being interpreted in CSS pixels.

    4. Set the output bitmap's origin-clean flag to true.

  2. If a bitmap argument was provided, run these substeps:

    1. Set context's bitmap mode to valid.

    2. Set context's output bitmap to refer to the same underlying bitmap data as bitmap, without making a copy.

      The origin-clean flag of bitmap is included in the bitmap data to be referenced by context's output bitmap.


When the width or height content attributes of a canvas element bound to an ImageBitmapRenderingContext context are set, changed or removed, if the context's bitmap mode is set to blank, the user agent must run the steps to set an ImageBitmapRenderingContext's output bitmap, using context and no bitmap argument.


The ImageBitmapRenderingContext creation algorithm, which is passed a target (a canvas element) and optionally some arguments, consists of running the following steps:

  1. If the algorithm was passed some arguments, let arg be the first such argument. Otherwise, let arg be undefined.

  2. Let settings be the result of coercing the arg context arguments for ImageBitmapRenderingContext.

  3. Create a new ImageBitmapRenderingContext object.

  4. Initialize its canvas attribute to point to target.

  5. Let the new ImageBitmapRenderingContext object's output bitmap and target's bitmap be a shared reference to the same bitmap.

  6. Run the steps to set an ImageBitmapRenderingContext's output bitmap, using the new ImageBitmapRenderingContext object as the context argument, and with no bitmap argument.

  7. Initialize context's alpha flag to true.

  8. Process each of the members of settings as follows:

    alpha
    If false, then set context's alpha flag to false.
  9. Return the new ImageBitmapRenderingContext object.


When a user agent is required to coerce context arguments for ImageBitmapRenderingContext, it must run the following steps:

  1. Let input be the argument to coerce.

  2. Let jsval be the result of converting input to a JavaScript value. If this throws an exception, then propagate the exception and abort these steps.

  3. Let dict be the result of converting jsval to the dictionary type ImageBitmapRenderingContextSettings. If this throws an exception, then propagate the exception and abort these steps.

  4. Return dict.


When the transferFromImageBitmap(imageBitmap) method is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Let bitmapContext be the ImageBitmapRenderingContext object on which the transferFromImageBitmap() method was called.

  2. If imageBitmap is null, run the steps to set an ImageBitmapRenderingContext's output bitmap, with bitmapContext as the context argument and no bitmap argument, then abort these steps.

  3. If the value of imageBitmap's [[Detached]] internal slot is set to true, throw an "InvalidStateError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  4. Run the steps to set an ImageBitmapRenderingContext's output bitmap, with the context argument equal to bitmapContext, and the bitmap argument referring to imageBitmap's underlying bitmap data.

  5. Set the value of imageBitmap's [[Detached]] internal slot to true.

  6. Unset imageBitmap's bitmap data.

4.12.5.3 Color spaces and color correction

The canvas APIs must perform color correction at only two points: when rendering images with their own gamma correction and color space information onto a bitmap, to convert the image to the color space used by the bitmaps (e.g. using the 2D Context's drawImage() method with an HTMLOrSVGImageElement object), and when rendering the actual canvas bitmap to the output device.

Thus, in the 2D context, colors used to draw shapes onto the canvas will exactly match colors obtained through the getImageData() method.

The toDataURL() method must not include color space information in the resources they return. Where the output format allows it, the color of pixels in resources created by toDataURL() must match those returned by the getImageData() method.

In user agents that support CSS, the color space used by a canvas element must match the color space used for processing any colors for that element in CSS.

The gamma correction and color space information of images must be handled in such a way that an image rendered directly using an img element would use the same colors as one painted on a canvas element that is then itself rendered. Furthermore, the rendering of images that have no color correction information (such as those returned by the toDataURL() method) must be rendered with no color correction.

Thus, in the 2D context, calling the drawImage() method to render the output of the toDataURL() method to the canvas, given the appropriate dimensions, has no visible effect.

4.12.5.4 Serializing bitmaps to a file

When a user agent is to create a serialization of the bitmap as a file, given an optional type and quality, it must create an image file in the format given by type, or if type was not supplied, in the PNG format. [PNG]

The image file's pixel data must be the bitmap's pixel data scaled to one image pixel per coordinate space unit, and if the file format used supports encoding resolution metadata, the resolution must be given as 96dpi (one image pixel per CSS pixel).

If type is supplied, it must be interpreted as a MIME type giving the format to use. If the type has any parameters, it must be treated as not supported.

For example, the value "image/png" would mean to generate a PNG image, the value "image/jpeg" would mean to generate a JPEG image, and the value "image/svg+xml" would mean to generate an SVG image (which would require that the user agent track how the bitmap was generated, an unlikely, though potentially awesome, feature).

User agents must support PNG ("image/png"). User agents may support other types. If the user agent does not support the requested type, it must create the file using the PNG format. [PNG]

User agents must convert the provided type to ASCII lowercase before establishing if they support that type.

For image types that do not support an alpha channel, the serialized image must be the bitmap image composited onto a solid black background using the source-over operator.

If type is an image format that supports variable quality (such as "image/jpeg") and quality is given, then, if Type(quality) is Number, and quality is in the range 0.0 to 1.0 inclusive, the user agent must treat quality as the desired quality level. If Type(quality) is not Number, or if quality is outside that range, the user agent must use its default quality value, as if the quality argument had not been given.

The use of type-testing here, instead of simply declaring quality as a Web IDL double, is a historical artifact.

4.12.5.5 Security with canvas elements

This section is non-normative.

Information leakage can occur if scripts from one origin can access information (e.g. read pixels) from images from another origin (one that isn't the same).

To mitigate this, bitmaps used with canvas elements and ImageBitmap objects are defined to have a flag indicating whether they are origin-clean. All bitmaps start with their origin-clean set to true. The flag is set to false when cross-origin images are used.

The toDataURL(), toBlob(), and getImageData() methods check the flag and will throw a "SecurityError" DOMException rather than leak cross-origin data.

The value of the origin-clean flag is propagated from a source canvas element's bitmap to a new ImageBitmap object by createImageBitmap(). Conversely, a destination canvas element's bitmap will have its origin-clean flags set to false by drawImage if the source image is an ImageBitmap object whose bitmap has its origin-clean flag set to false.

The flag can be reset in certain situations; for example, when changing the value of the width or the height content attribute of the canvas element to which a CanvasRenderingContext2D is bound, the bitmap is cleared and its origin-clean flag is reset.

When using an ImageBitmapRenderingContext, the value of the origin-clean flag is propagated from ImageBitmap objects when they are transferred to the canvas via transferFromImageBitmap().

4.13 Custom elements

Support: Chrome 54+Chrome for Android NoneiOS Safari NoneUC Browser for Android NoneFirefox NoneIE NoneOpera Mini NoneSamsung Internet NoneAndroid Browser NoneSafari NoneOpera 41+

Source: caniuse.com

4.13.1 Introduction

This section is non-normative.

Custom elements provide a way for authors to build their own fully-featured DOM elements. Although authors could always use non-standard elements in their documents, with application-specific behavior added after the fact by scripting or similar, such elements have historically been non-conforming and not very functional. By defining a custom element, authors can inform the parser how to properly construct an element and how elements of that class should react to changes.

Custom elements are part of a larger effort to "rationalise the platform", by explaining existing platform features (like the elements of HTML) in terms of lower-level author-exposed extensibility points (like custom element definition). Although today there are many limitations on the capabilities of custom elements—both functionally and semantically—that prevent them from fully explaining the behaviors of HTML's existing elements, we hope to shrink this gap over time.

4.13.1.1 Creating an autonomous custom element

This section is non-normative.

For the purposes of illustrating how to create an autonomous custom element, let's define a custom element that encapsulates rendering a small icon for a country flag. Our goal is to be able to use it like so:

<flag-icon country="nl"></flag-icon>

To do this, we first declare a class for the custom element, extending HTMLElement:

class FlagIcon extends HTMLElement {
  constructor() {
    super();
    this._countryCode = null;
  }

  static get observedAttributes() { return ["country"]; }

  attributeChangedCallback(name, oldValue, newValue) {
    // name will always be "country" due to observedAttributes
    this._countryCode = newValue;
    this._updateRendering();
  }
  connectedCallback() {
    this._updateRendering();
  }

  get country() {
    return this._countryCode;
  }
  set country(v) {
    this.setAttribute("country", v);
  }

  _updateRendering() {
    // Left as an exercise for the reader. But, you'll probably want to
    // check this.ownerDocument.defaultView to see if we've been
    // inserted into a document with a browsing context, and avoid
    // doing any work if not.
  }
}

We then need to use this class to define the element:

customElements.define("flag-icon", FlagIcon);

At this point, our above code will work! The parser, whenever it sees the flag-icon tag, will construct a new instance of our FlagIcon class, and tell our code about its new country attribute, which we then use to set the element's internal state and update its rendering (when appropriate).

You can also create flag-icon elements using the DOM API:

const flagIcon = document.createElement("flag-icon")
flagIcon.country = "jp"
document.body.appendChild(flagIcon)

Finally, we can also use the custom element constructor itself. That is, the above code is equivalent to:

const flagIcon = new FlagIcon()
flagIcon.country = "jp"
document.body.appendChild(flagIcon)
4.13.1.2 Creating a customized built-in element

This section is non-normative.

Customized built-in elements are a distinct kind of custom element, which are defined slightly differently and used very differently compared to autonomous custom elements. They exist to allow reuse of behaviors from the existing elements of HTML, by extending those elements with new custom functionality. This is important since many of the existing behaviors of HTML elements can unfortunately not be duplicated by using purely autonomous custom elements. Instead, customized built-in elements allow the installation of custom construction behavior, lifecycle hooks, and prototype chain onto existing elements, essentially "mixing in" these capabilities on top of the already-existing element.

Customized built-in elements require a distinct syntax from autonomous custom elements because user agents and other software key off an element's local name in order to identify the element's semantics and behavior. That is, the concept of customized built-in elements building on top of existing behavior depends crucially on the extended elements retaining their original local name.

In this example, we'll be creating a customized built-in element named plastic-button, which behaves like a normal button but gets fancy animation effects added whenever you click on it. We start by defining a class, just like before, although this time we extend HTMLButtonElement instead of HTMLElement:

class PlasticButton extends HTMLButtonElement {
  constructor() {
    super();

    this.addEventListener("click", () => {
      // Draw some fancy animation effects!
    });
  }
}

When defining our custom element, we have to also specify the extends option:

customElements.define("plastic-button", PlasticButton, { extends: "button" });

In general, the name of the element being extended cannot be determined simply by looking at what element interface it extends, as many elements share the same interface (such as q and blockquote both sharing HTMLQuoteElement).

To use our customized built-in element, we use the is attribute on a button element:

<button is="plastic-button">Click Me!</button>

Trying to use a customized built-in element as an autonomous custom element will not work; that is, <plastic-button>Click me?</plastic-button> will simply create an HTMLElement with no special behavior.

If you need to create a type-extended element programmatically, you can use the following form of createElement():

const plasticButton = document.createElement("button", { is: "plastic-button" });
plasticButton.textContent = "Click me!";

And as before, the constructor will also work:

const plasticButton2 = new PlasticButton();
console.log(plasticButton2.localName);          // will output "button"
console.log(plasticButton2.getAttribute("is")); // will output "plastic-button"

Notably, all the of the ways in which button is special apply to such "plastic buttons" as well: their focus behavior, ability to participate in form submission, the disabled attribute, and so on.

4.13.1.3 Drawbacks of autonomous custom elements

This section is non-normative.

As specified below, and alluded to above, simply defining and using an element called taco-button does not mean that such elements represent buttons. That is, tools such as Web browsers, search engines, or accessibility technology will not automatically treat the resulting element as a button just based on its defined name.

To convey the desired button semantics to a variety of users, while still using an autonomous custom element, a number of techniques would need to be employed:

With these points in mind, a full-featured taco-button that took on the responsibility of conveying button semantics (including the ability to be disabled) might look something like this:

class TacoButton extends HTMLElement {
  static get observedAttributes() { return ["disabled"]; }

  constructor() {
    super();

    this.addEventListener("keydown", e => {
      if (e.keyCode === 32 || e.keyCode === 13) {
        this.dispatchEvent(new MouseEvent("click", {
          bubbles: true,
          cancelable: true
        }));
      }
    });

    this.addEventListener("click", e => {
      if (this.disabled) {
        e.preventDefault();
        e.stopPropagation();
      }
    });

    this._observer = new MutationObserver(() => {
      this.setAttribute("aria-label", this.textContent);
    });
  }

  connectedCallback() {
    this.setAttribute("role", "button");
    this.setAttribute("tabindex", "0");

    this._observer.observe(this, {
      childList: true,
      characterData: true,
      subtree: true
    });
  }

  disconnectedCallback() {
    this._observer.disconnect();
  }

  get disabled() {
    return this.hasAttribute("disabled");
  }

  set disabled(v) {
    if (v) {
      this.setAttribute("disabled", "");
    } else {
      this.removeAttribute("disabled");
    }
  }

  attributeChangedCallback() {
    // only is called for the disabled attribute due to observedAttributes
    if (this.disabled) {
      this.removeAttribute("tabindex");
      this.setAttribute("aria-disabled", "true");
    } else {
      this.setAttribute("tabindex", "0");
      this.setAttribute("aria-disabled", "false");
    }
  }
}

Even with this rather-complicated element definition, the element is not a pleasure to use for consumers: it will be continually "sprouting" tabindex and aria-* attributes of its own volition. This is because as of now there is no way to specify default accessibility semantics or focus behavior for custom elements, forcing the use of these attributes to do so (even though they are usually reserved for allowing the consumer to override default behavior).

In contrast, a simple customized built-in element, as shown in the previous section, would automatically inherit the semantics and behavior of the button element, with no need to implement these behaviors manually. In general, for any elements with nontrivial behavior and semantics that build on top of existing elements of HTML, customized built-in elements will be easier to develop, maintain, and consume.

4.13.1.4 Upgrading elements after their creation

This section is non-normative.

Because element definition can occur at any time, a non-custom element could be created, and then later become a custom element after an appropriate definition is registered. We call this process "upgrading" the element, from a normal element into a custom element.

Upgrades enable scenarios where it may be preferable for custom element definitions to be registered after relevant elements has been initially created, such as by the parser. They allow progressive enhancement of the content in the custom element. For example, in the following HTML document the element definition for img-viewer is loaded asynchronously:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<title>Image viewer example</title>

<img-viewer filter="Kelvin">
  <img src="images/tree.jpg" alt="A beautiful tree towering over an empty savannah">
</img-viewer>

<script src="js/elements/img-viewer.js" async></script>

The definition for the img-viewer element here is loaded using a script element marked with the async attribute, placed after the <img-viewer> tag in the markup. While the script is loading, the img-viewer element will be treated as an undefined element, similar to a span. Once the script loads, it will define the img-viewer element, and the existing img-viewer element on the page will be upgraded, applying the custom element's definition (which presumably includes applying an image filter identified by the string "Kelvin", enhancing the image's visual appearance).


Note that upgrades only apply to elements in the document tree. (Formally, elements that are connected.) An element that is not inserted into a document will stay un-upgraded. An example illustrates this point:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<title>Upgrade edge-cases example</title>

<example-element></example-element>

<script>
  "use strict";

  const inDocument = document.querySelector("example-element");
  const outOfDocument = document.createElement("example-element");

  // Before the element definition, both are HTMLElement:
  console.assert(inDocument instanceof HTMLElement);
  console.assert(outOfDocument instanceof HTMLElement);

  class ExampleElement extends HTMLElement {}
  customElements.define("example-element", ExampleElement);

  // After element definition, the in-document element was upgraded:
  console.assert(inDocument instanceof ExampleElement);
  console.assert(!(outOfDocument instanceof ExampleElement));

  document.body.appendChild(outOfDocument);

  // Now that we've moved the element into the document, it too was upgraded:
  console.assert(outOfDocument instanceof ExampleElement);
</script>

4.13.2 Requirements for custom element constructors

When authoring custom element constructors, authors are bound by the following conformance requirements:

Several of these requirements are checked during element creation, either directly or indirectly, and failing to follow them will result in a custom element that cannot be instantiated by the parser or DOM APIs.

4.13.3 Core concepts

A custom element is an element that is custom. Informally, this means that its constructor and prototype are defined by the author, instead of by the user agent. This author-supplied constructor function is called the custom element constructor.

Two distinct types of custom elements can be defined:

  1. An autonomous custom element, which is defined with no extends option. These types of custom elements have a local name equal to their defined name.

  2. A customized built-in element, which is defined with an extends option. These types of custom elements have local name equal to the value passed in their extends option, and their defined name is used as the value of the is attribute.

After a custom element is created, changing the value of the is attribute does not change the element's behavior, as it is saved on the element as its is value.

Autonomous custom elements have the following element definition:

Categories:
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Palpable content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent.
Content attributes:
Global attributes, except the is attribute
Any other attribute that has no namespace (see prose).
DOM interface:
Supplied by the element's author (inherits from HTMLElement)

An autonomous custom element does not have any special meaning: it represents its children. A customized built-in element inherits the semantics of the element that it extends.

Any namespace-less attribute that is relevant to the element's functioning, as determined by the element's author, may be specified on an autonomous custom element, so long as the attribute name is XML-compatible and contains no uppercase ASCII letters. The exception is the is attribute, which must not be specified on an autonomous custom element (and which will have no effect if it is).

Customized built-in elements follow the normal requirements for attributes, based on the elements they extend. To add custom attribute-based behavior, use data-* attributes.


A valid custom element name is a sequence of characters name that meets all of the following requirements:

These requirements ensure a number of goals for valid custom element names:

Apart from these restrictions, a large variety of names is allowed, to give maximum flexibility for use cases like <math-α> or <emotion-😍>.

A custom element definition describes a custom element and consists of:

A name
A valid custom element name
A local name
A local name
A constructor
A custom element constructor
A list of observed attributes
A sequence<DOMString>
A collection of lifecycle callbacks
A map, whose four keys are the strings "connectedCallback", "disconnectedCallback", "adoptedCallback", and "attributeChangedCallback". The corresponding values are either a Web IDL Function callback function type value, or null. By default the value of each entry is null.
A construction stack
A list, initially empty, that is manipulated by the upgrade an element algorithm and the HTML element constructors. Each entry in the list will be either an element or an already constructed marker.

To look up a custom element definition, given a document, namespace, localName, and is, perform the following steps. They will return either a custom element definition or null:

  1. If namespace is not the HTML namespace, return null.

  2. If document does not have a browsing context, return null.

  3. Let registry be document's browsing context's Window's CustomElementRegistry object.

  4. If there is custom element definition in registry with name and local name both equal to localName, return that custom element definition.

  5. If there is a custom element definition in registry with name equal to is and local name equal to localName, return that custom element definition.

  6. Return null.

4.13.4 The CustomElementRegistry interface

Each Window object is associated with a unique instance of a CustomElementRegistry object, allocated when the Window object is created.

Custom element registries are associated with Window objects, instead of Document objects, since each custom element constructor inherits from the HTMLElement interface, and there is exactly one HTMLElement interface per Window object.

The customElements attribute of the Window interface must return the CustomElementRegistry object for that Window object.

interface CustomElementRegistry {
  [CEReactions] void define(DOMString name, Function constructor, optional ElementDefinitionOptions options);
  any get(DOMString name);
  Promise<void> whenDefined(DOMString name);
};

dictionary ElementDefinitionOptions {
  DOMString extends;
};

Every CustomElementRegistry has a set of custom element definitions, initially empty. In general, algorithms in this specification look up elements in the registry by any of name, local name, or constructor.

Every CustomElementRegistry also has an element definition is running flag which is used to prevent reentrant invocations of element definition. It is initially unset.

Every CustomElementRegistry also has a when-defined promise map, mapping valid custom element names to promises. It is used to implement the whenDefined() method.

window . customElements . define(name, constructor)
Defines a new custom element, mapping the given name to the given constructor as an autonomous custom element.
window . customElements . define(name, constructor, { extends: baseLocalName })
Defines a new custom element, mapping the given name to the given constructor as a customized built-in element for the element type identified by the supplied baseLocalName. A "NotSupportedError" DOMException will be thrown upon trying to extend a custom element or an unknown element.
window . customElements . get(name)
Retrieves the custom element constructor defined for the given name. Returns undefined if there is no custom element definition with the given name.
window . customElements . whenDefined(name)
Returns a promise that will be fulfilled when a custom element becomes defined with the given name. (If such a custom element is already defined, the returned promise will be immediately fulfilled.) Returns a promise rejected with a "SyntaxError" DOMException if not given a valid custom element name.

Element definition is a process of adding a custom element definition to the CustomElementRegistry. This is accomplished by the define() method. When invoked, the define(name, constructor, options) method must run these steps:

  1. If IsConstructor(constructor) is false, then throw a TypeError and abort these steps.

  2. If name is not a valid custom element name, then throw a "SyntaxError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  3. If this CustomElementRegistry contains an entry with name name, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  4. If this CustomElementRegistry contains an entry with constructor constructor, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  5. Let localName be name.

  6. Let extends be the value of the extends member of options, or null if no such member exists.

  7. If extends is not null, then:

    1. If extends is a valid custom element name, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

    2. If the element interface for extends and the HTML namespace is HTMLUnknownElement (e.g., if extends does not indicate an element definition in this specification), then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

    3. Set localName to extends.

  8. If this CustomElementRegistry's element definition is running flag is set, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  9. Set this CustomElementRegistry's element definition is running flag.

  10. Run the following substeps while catching any exceptions:

    1. Let prototype be Get(constructor, "prototype"). Rethrow any exceptions.

    2. If Type(prototype) is not Object, then throw a TypeError exception.

    3. Let lifecycleCallbacks be a map with the four keys "connectedCallback", "disconnectedCallback", "adoptedCallback", and "attributeChangedCallback", each of which belongs to an entry whose value is null.

    4. For each of the four keys callbackName in lifecycleCallbacks, in the order listed in the previous step:

      1. Let callbackValue be Get(prototype, callbackName). Rethrow any exceptions.

      2. If callbackValue is not undefined, then set the value of the entry in lifecycleCallbacks with key callbackName to the result of converting callbackValue to the Web IDL Function callback type. Rethrow any exceptions from the conversion.

    5. Let observedAttributes be an empty sequence<DOMString>.

    6. If the value of the entry in lifecycleCallbacks with key "attributeChangedCallback" is not null, then:

      1. Let observedAttributesIterable be Get(constructor, "observedAttributes"). Rethrow any exceptions.

      2. If observedAttributesIterable is not undefined, then set observedAttributes to the result of converting observedAttributesIterable to a sequence<DOMString>. Rethrow any exceptions from the conversion.

    Then, perform the following substep, regardless of whether the above steps threw an exception or not:

    1. Unset this CustomElementRegistry's element definition is running flag.

    Finally, if the first set of substeps threw an exception, then rethrow that exception, and terminate this algorithm. Otherwise, continue onward.

  11. Let definition be a new custom element definition with name name, local name localName, constructor constructor, observed attributes observedAttributes, and lifecycle callbacks lifecycleCallbacks.

  12. Add definition to this CustomElementRegistry.

  13. Let document be this CustomElementRegistry's relevant global object's associated Document.

  14. Let upgrade candidates be all elements that are shadow-including descendants of document, whose namespace is the HTML namespace and whose local name is localName, in shadow-including tree order. Additionally, if extends is non-null, only include elements whose is value is equal to name.

  15. For each element element in upgrade candidates, enqueue a custom element upgrade reaction given element and definition.

  16. If this CustomElementRegistry's when-defined promise map contains an entry with key name:

    1. Let promise be the value of that entry.

    2. Resolve promise with undefined.

    3. Delete the entry with key name from this CustomElementRegistry's when-defined promise map.

When invoked, the get(name) method must run these steps:

  1. If this CustomElementRegistry contains an entry with name name, then return that entry's constructor.

  2. Otherwise, return undefined.

When invoked, the whenDefined(name) method must run these steps:

  1. If name is not a valid custom element name, then return a new promise rejected with a "SyntaxError" DOMException and abort these steps.

  2. If this CustomElementRegistry contains an entry with name name, then return a new promise resolved with undefined and abort these steps.

  3. Let map be this CustomElementRegistry's when-defined promise map.

  4. If map does not contain an entry with key name, create an entry in map with key name and whose value is a new promise.

  5. Let promise be the value of the entry in map with key name.

  6. Return promise.

The whenDefined() method can be used to avoid performing an action until all appropriate custom elements are defined. In this example, we combine it with the :defined pseudo-class to hide a dynamically-loaded article's contents until we're sure that all of the autonomous custom elements it uses are defined.

articleContainer.hidden = true;

fetch(articleURL)
  .then(response => response.text())
  .then(text => {
    articleContainer.innerHTML = text;

    return Promise.all(
      [...articleContainer.querySelectorAll(":not(:defined)")]
        .map(el => customElements.whenDefined(el.localName))
    );
  })
  .then(() => {
    articleContainer.hidden = false;
  });

4.13.5 Upgrades

To upgrade an element, given as input a custom element definition definition and an element element, run the following steps:

  1. If element is custom, abort these steps.

    This can occur due to reentrant invocation of this algorithm, as in the following example:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <x-foo id="a"></x-foo>
    <x-foo id="b"></x-foo>
    
    <script>
    // Defining enqueues upgrade reactions for both "a" and "b"
    customElements.define("x-foo", class extends HTMLElement {
      constructor() {
        super();
    
        const b = document.querySelector("#b");
        b.remove();
    
        // While this constructor is running for "a", "b" is still
        // undefined, and so inserting it into the document will enqueue a
        // second upgrade reaction for "b" in addition to the one enqueued
        // by defining x-foo.
        document.body.appendChild(b);
      }
    })
    </script>

    This step will thus bail out the algorithm early when upgrade an element is invoked with "b" a second time.

  2. If element's custom element state is "failed", then abort these steps.

  3. For each attribute in element's attribute list, in order, enqueue a custom element callback reaction with element, callback name "attributeChangedCallback", and an argument list containing attribute's local name, null, attribute's value, and attribute's namespace.

  4. If element is connected, then enqueue a custom element callback reaction with element, callback name "connectedCallback", and an empty argument list.

  5. Add element to the end of definition's construction stack.

  6. Let C be definition's constructor.

  7. Run the following substeps while catching any exceptions:

    1. Let constructResult be Construct(C).

      If C non-conformantly uses an API decorated with the [CEReactions] extended attribute, then the reactions enqueued at the beginning of this algorithm will execute during this step, before C finishes and control returns to this algorithm. Otherwise, they will execute after C and the rest of the upgrade process finishes.

    2. If SameValue(constructResult, element) is false, then throw an "InvalidStateError" DOMException.

      This can occur if C constructs another instance of the same custom element before calling super(), or if C uses JavaScript's return-override feature to return an arbitrary object from the constructor.

    Then, perform the following substep, regardless of whether the above steps threw an exception or not:

    1. Remove the last entry from the end of definition's construction stack.

      Assuming C calls super() (as it will if it is conformant), and that the call succeeds, this will be the already constructed marker that replaced the element we pushed at the beginning of this algorithm. (The HTML element constructor carries out this replacement.)

      If C does not call super() (i.e. it is not conformant), or if any step in the HTML element constructor throws, then this entry will still be element.

    Finally, if the above steps threw an exception, then:

    1. Set element's custom element state to "failed".

    2. Empty element's custom element reaction queue.

    3. Rethrow the exception, and terminate this algorithm.

  8. Set element's custom element state to "custom".

  9. Set element's custom element definition to definition.

To try to upgrade an element, given as input an element element, run the following steps:

  1. Let definition be the result of looking up a custom element definition given element's node document, element's namespace, element's local name, and element's is value.

  2. If definition is not null, then enqueue a custom element upgrade reaction given element and definition.

4.13.6 Custom element reactions

A custom element possesses the ability to respond to certain occurrences by running author code:

We call these reactions collectively custom element reactions.

The way in which custom element reactions are invoked is done with special care, to avoid running author code during the middle of delicate operations. Effectively, they are delayed until "just before returning to user script". This means that for most purposes they appear to execute synchronously, but in the case of complicated composite operations (like cloning, or range manipulation), they will instead be delayed until after all the relevant user agent processing steps have completed, and then run together as a batch.

Additionally, the precise ordering of these reactions is managed via a somewhat-complicated stack-of-queues system, described below. The intention behind this system is to guarantee that custom element reactions always are invoked in the same order as their triggering actions, at least within the local context of a single custom element. (Because custom element reaction code can perform its own mutations, it is not possible to give a global ordering guarantee across multiple elements.)


Each unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts has a custom element reactions stack, which is initially empty. The current element queue is the element queue at the top of the custom element reactions stack. Each item in the stack is an element queue, which is initially empty as well. Each item in an element queue is an element. (The elements are not necessarily custom yet, since this queue is used for upgrades as well.)

Each custom element reactions stack has an associated backup element queue, which an initially-empty element queue. Elements are pushed onto the backup element queue during operations that affect the DOM without going through an API decorated with [CEReactions], or through the parser's create an element for the token algorithm. An example of this is a user-initiated editing operation which modifies the descendants or attributes of an editable element. To prevent reentrancy when processing the backup element queue, each custom element reactions stack also has a processing the backup element queue flag, initially unset.

All elements have an associated custom element reaction queue, initially empty. Each item in the custom element reaction queue is of one of two types:

This is all summarized in the following schematic diagram:

A custom element reactions stack consists of a stack of element queues. Zooming in on a particular queue, we see that it contains a number of elements (in our example, <x-a>, then <x-b>, then <x-c>). Any particular element in the queue then has a custom element reaction queue. Zooming in on the custom element reaction queue, we see that it contains a variety of queued-up reactions (in our example, upgrade, then attribute changed, then another attribute changed, then connected).

To enqueue an element on the appropriate element queue, given an element element, run the following steps:

  1. If the custom element reactions stack is empty, then:

    1. Add element to the backup element queue.

    2. If the processing the backup element queue flag is set, abort this algorithm.

    3. Set the processing the backup element queue flag.

    4. Queue a microtask to perform the following steps:

      1. Invoke custom element reactions in the backup element queue.

      2. Unset the processing the backup element queue flag.

  2. Otherwise, add element to the current element queue.

To enqueue a custom element callback reaction, given a custom element element, a callback name callbackName, and a list of arguments args, run the following steps:

  1. Let definition be element's custom element definition.

  2. Let callback be the value of the entry in definition's lifecycle callbacks with key callbackName.

  3. If callback is null, then abort these steps.

  4. If callbackName is "attributeChangedCallback", then:

    1. Let attributeName be the first element of args.

    2. If definition's observed attributes does not contain attributeName, then abort these steps.

  5. Add a new callback reaction to element's custom element reaction queue, with callback function callback and arguments args.

  6. Enqueue an element on the appropriate element queue given element.

To enqueue a custom element upgrade reaction, given an element element and custom element definition definition, run the following steps:

  1. Add a new upgrade reaction to element's custom element reaction queue, with custom element definition definition.

  2. Enqueue an element on the appropriate element queue given element.

To invoke custom element reactions in an element queue queue, run the following steps:

  1. For each custom element element in queue:

    1. Let reactions be element's custom element reaction queue.

    2. Repeat until reactions is empty:

      1. Remove the first element of reactions, and let reaction be that element. Switch on reaction's type:

        upgrade reaction
        Upgrade element using reaction's custom element definition.
        callback reaction
        Invoke reaction's callback function with reaction's arguments, and with element as the callback this value.

        If this throws any exception, then report the exception.


To ensure custom element reactions are triggered appropriately, we introduce the [CEReactions] IDL extended attribute. It indicates that the relevant algorithm is to be supplemented with additional steps in order to appropriately track and invoke custom element reactions.

The [CEReactions] extended attribute must take no arguments, and must not appear on anything other than an operation, attribute, setter, or deleter. Additionally, it must not appear on readonly attributes, unless the readonly attribute is also annotated with [PutForwards].

Operations, attributes, setters, or deleters annotated with the [CEReactions] extended attribute must run the following steps surrounding the main algorithm specified for the operation, setter, deleter, or for the attribute's setter:

Before executing the algorithm's steps
Push a new element queue onto the custom element reactions stack.
After executing the algorithm's steps
Pop the element queue from the custom element reactions stack, and invoke custom element reactions in that queue.

The intent behind this extended attribute is somewhat subtle. One way of accomplishing its goals would be to say that every operation, attribute, setter, and deleter on the platform should have these steps inserted, and to allow implementers to optimize away unnecessary cases (where no DOM mutation is possible that could cause custom element reactions to occur).

However, in practice this imprecision could lead to non-interoperable implementations of custom element reactions, as some implementations might forget to invoke these steps in some cases. Instead, we settled on the approach of explicitly annotating all relevant IDL constructs, as a way of ensuring interoperable behavior and helping implementations easily pinpoint all cases where these steps are necessary.

Any nonstandard APIs introduced by the user agent that could modify the DOM in such a way as to cause enqueuing a custom element callback reaction or enqueuing a custom element upgrade reaction, for example by modifying any attributes or child elements, must also be decorated with the [CEReactions] attribute.

As of the time of this writing, the following nonstandard or not-yet-standardized APIs are known to fall into this category:

4.14 Common idioms without dedicated elements

4.14.1 The main part of the content

The main content of a page — not including headers and footers, navigation links, sidebars, advertisements, and so forth — can be marked up in a variety of ways, depending on the needs of the author.

The simplest solution is to not mark up the main content at all, and just leave it as implicit. Another way to think of this is that the body elements marks up the main content of the page, and the bits that aren't main content are excluded through the use of more appropriate elements like aside and nav.

Here is a short Web page marked up along this minimalistic school of thought. The main content is highlighted. Notice how all the other content in the body is marked up with elements to indicate that it's not part of the main content, in this case header, nav, and footer.

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <title> My Toys </title>
 </head>
 <body>
  <header>
   <h1>My toys</h1>
  </header>
  <nav>
   <p><a href="/">Home</a></p>
   <p><a href="/contact">Contact</a></p>
  </nav>
  <p>I really like my chained book and my telephone. I'm not such a
  fan of my big ball.</p>
  <p>Another toy I like is my mirror.</p>
  <footer>
   <p>© copyright 2010 by the boy</p>
  </footer>
 </body>
</html>

If the main content is an independent unit of content that one could imagine syndicating independently, then the article element would be appropriate to mark up the main content of the document.

The document in the previous example is here recast as a blog post:

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <title> The Boy Blog: My Toys </title>
 </head>
 <body>
  <header>
   <h1>The Boy Blog</h1>
  </header>
  <nav>
   <p><a href="/">Home</a></p>
   <p><a href="/contact">Contact</a></p>
  </nav>
  <article>
   <header>
    <h1>My toys</h1>
    <p>Published August 4th</p>
   </header>
   <p>I really like my chained book and my telephone. I'm not such a
   fan of my big ball.</p>
   <p>Another toy I like is my mirror.</p>
  </article>
  <footer>
   <p>© copyright 2010 by the boy</p>
  </footer>
 </body>
</html>

If the main content is not an independent unit of content so much as a section of a larger work, for instance a chapter, then the section element would be appropriate to mark up the main content of the document.

Here is the same document, but as a chapter in an online book:

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <title> Chapter 2: My Toys — The Book of the Boy </title>
 </head>
 <body>
  <header>
   <hgroup>
    <h1>The Book of the Boy</h1>
    <h2>A book about boy stuff</h2>
   </hgroup>
  </header>
  <nav>
   <p><a href="/">Front Page</a></p>
   <p><a href="/toc">Table of Contents</a></p>
   <p><a href="/c1">Chapter 1</a> — <a href="/c3">Chapter 3</a></p>
  </nav>
  <section>
   <h1>Chapter 2: My Toys</h1>
   <p>I really like my chained book and my telephone. I'm not such a
   fan of my big ball.</p>
   <p>Another toy I like is my mirror.</p>
  </section>
 </body>
</html>

If neither article nor section would be appropriate, but the main content still needs an explicit element, for example for styling purposes, then the main element can be used.

This is the same as the original example, but using main for the main content instead of leaving it implied:

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <title> My Toys </title>
  <style>
   body > main { background: navy; color: yellow; }
  </style>
 </head>
 <body>
  <header>
   <h1>My toys</h1>
  </header>
  <nav>
   <p><a href="/">Home</a></p>
   <p><a href="/contact">Contact</a></p>
  </nav>
  <main>
   <p>I really like my chained book and my telephone. I'm not such a
   fan of my big ball.</p>
   <p>Another toy I like is my mirror.</p>
  </main>
  <footer>
   <p>© copyright 2010 by the boy</p>
  </footer>
 </body>
</html>

4.14.2 Bread crumb navigation

This specification does not provide a machine-readable way of describing bread-crumb navigation menus. Authors are encouraged to just use a series of links in a paragraph. The nav element can be used to mark the section containing these paragraphs as being navigation blocks.

In the following example, the current page can be reached via two paths.

<nav>
 <p>
  <a href="/">Main</a> ▸
  <a href="/products/">Products</a> ▸
  <a href="/products/dishwashers/">Dishwashers</a> ▸
  <a>Second hand</a>
 </p>
 <p>
  <a href="/">Main</a> ▸
  <a href="/second-hand/">Second hand</a> ▸
  <a>Dishwashers</a>
 </p>
</nav>

4.14.3 Tag clouds

This specification does not define any markup specifically for marking up lists of keywords that apply to a group of pages (also known as tag clouds). In general, authors are encouraged to either mark up such lists using ul elements with explicit inline counts that are then hidden and turned into a presentational effect using a style sheet, or to use SVG.

Here, three tags are included in a short tag cloud:

<style>
.tag-cloud > li > span { display: none; }
.tag-cloud > li { display: inline; }
.tag-cloud-1 { font-size: 0.7em; }
.tag-cloud-2 { font-size: 0.9em; }
.tag-cloud-3 { font-size: 1.1em; }
.tag-cloud-4 { font-size: 1.3em; }
.tag-cloud-5 { font-size: 1.5em; }

@media speech {
  .tag-cloud > li > span { display:inline }
}
</style>
...
<ul class="tag-cloud">
 <li class="tag-cloud-4"><a title="28 instances" href="/t/apple">apple</a> <span>(popular)</span>
 <li class="tag-cloud-2"><a title="6 instances"  href="/t/kiwi">kiwi</a> <span>(rare)</span>
 <li class="tag-cloud-5"><a title="41 instances" href="/t/pear">pear</a> <span>(very popular)</span>
</ul>

The actual frequency of each tag is given using the title attribute. A CSS style sheet is provided to convert the markup into a cloud of differently-sized words, but for user agents that do not support CSS or are not visual, the markup contains annotations like "(popular)" or "(rare)" to categorize the various tags by frequency, thus enabling all users to benefit from the information.

The ul element is used (rather than ol) because the order is not particularly important: while the list is in fact ordered alphabetically, it would convey the same information if ordered by, say, the length of the tag.

The tag rel-keyword is not used on these a elements because they do not represent tags that apply to the page itself; they are just part of an index listing the tags themselves.

4.14.4 Conversations

This specification does not define a specific element for marking up conversations, meeting minutes, chat transcripts, dialogues in screenplays, instant message logs, and other situations where different players take turns in discourse.

Instead, authors are encouraged to mark up conversations using p elements and punctuation. Authors who need to mark the speaker for styling purposes are encouraged to use span or b. Paragraphs with their text wrapped in the i element can be used for marking up stage directions.

This example demonstrates this using an extract from Abbot and Costello's famous sketch, Who's on first:

<p> Costello: Look, you gotta first baseman?
<p> Abbott: Certainly.
<p> Costello: Who's playing first?
<p> Abbott: That's right.
<p> Costello becomes exasperated.
<p> Costello: When you pay off the first baseman every month, who gets the money?
<p> Abbott: Every dollar of it.

The following extract shows how an IM conversation log could be marked up, using the data element to provide Unix timestamps for each line. Note that the timestamps are provided in a format that the time element does not support, so the data element is used instead (namely, Unix time_t timestamps). Had the author wished to mark up the data using one of the date and time formats supported by the time element, that element could have been used instead of data. This could be advantageous as it would allow data analysis tools to detect the timestamps unambiguously, without coordination with the page author.

<p> <data value="1319898155">14:22</data> <b>egof</b> I'm not that nerdy, I've only seen 30% of the star trek episodes
<p> <data value="1319898192">14:23</data> <b>kaj</b> if you know what percentage of the star trek episodes you have seen, you are inarguably nerdy
<p> <data value="1319898200">14:23</data> <b>egof</b> it's unarguably
<p> <data value="1319898228">14:23</data> <i>* kaj blinks</i>
<p> <data value="1319898260">14:24</data> <b>kaj</b> you are not helping your case

HTML does not have a good way to mark up graphs, so descriptions of interactive conversations from games are more difficult to mark up. This example shows one possible convention using dl elements to list the possible responses at each point in the conversation. Another option to consider is describing the conversation in the form of a DOT file, and outputting the result as an SVG image to place in the document. [DOT]

<p> Next, you meet a fisher. You can say one of several greetings:
<dl>
 <dt> "Hello there!"
 <dd>
  <p> She responds with "Hello, how may I help you?"; you can respond with:
  <dl>
   <dt> "I would like to buy a fish."
   <dd> <p> She sells you a fish and the conversation finishes.
   <dt> "Can I borrow your boat?"
   <dd>
    <p> She is surprised and asks "What are you offering in return?".
    <dl>
     <dt> "Five gold." (if you have enough)
     <dt> "Ten gold." (if you have enough)
     <dt> "Fifteen gold." (if you have enough)
     <dd> <p> She lends you her boat. The conversation ends.
     <dt> "A fish." (if you have one)
     <dt> "A newspaper." (if you have one)
     <dt> "A pebble." (if you have one)
     <dd> <p> "No thanks", she replies. Your conversation options
     at this point are the same as they were after asking to borrow
     her boat, minus any options you've suggested before.
    </dl>
   </dd>
  </dl>
 </dd>
 <dt> "Vote for me in the next election!"
 <dd> <p> She turns away. The conversation finishes.
 <dt> "Madam, are you aware that your fish are running away?"
 <dd>
  <p> She looks at you skeptically and says "Fish cannot run, miss".
  <dl>
   <dt> "You got me!"
   <dd> <p> The fisher sighs and the conversation ends.
   <dt> "Only kidding."
   <dd> <p> "Good one!" she retorts. Your conversation options at this
   point are the same as those following "Hello there!" above.
   <dt> "Oh, then what are they doing?"
   <dd> <p> She looks at her fish, giving you an opportunity to steal
   her boat, which you do. The conversation ends.
  </dl>
 </dd>
</dl>

In some games, conversations are simpler: each character merely has a fixed set of lines that they say. In this example, a game FAQ/walkthrough lists some of the known possible responses for each character:

<section>
 <h1>Dialogue</h1>
 <p><small>Some characters repeat their lines in order each time you interact
 with them, others randomly pick from amongst their lines. Those who respond in
 order have numbered entries in the lists below.</small>
 <h2>The Shopkeeper</h2>
 <ul>
  <li>How may I help you?
  <li>Fresh apples!
  <li>A loaf of bread for madam?
 </ul>
 <h2>The pilot</h2>
 <p>Before the accident:
 <ul>
  </li>I'm about to fly out, sorry!
  </li>Sorry, I'm just waiting for flight clearance and then I'll be off!
 </ul>
 <p>After the accident:
 <ol>
  <li>I'm about to fly out, sorry!
  <li>Ok, I'm not leaving right now, my plane is being cleaned.
  <li>Ok, it's not being cleaned, it needs a minor repair first.
  <li>Ok, ok, stop bothering me! Truth is, I had a crash.
 </ol>
 <h2>Clan Leader</h2>
 <p>During the first clan meeting:
 <ul>
  <li>Hey, have you seen my daughter? I bet she's up to something nefarious again...
  <li>Nice weather we're having today, eh?
  <li>The name is Bailey, Jeff Bailey. How can I help you today?
  <li>A glass of water? Fresh from the well!
 </ul>
 <p>After the earthquake:
 <ol>
  <li>Everyone is safe in the shelter, we just have to put out the fire!
  <li>I'll go and tell the fire brigade, you keep hosing it down!
 </ol>
</section>

4.14.5 Footnotes

HTML does not have a dedicated mechanism for marking up footnotes. Here are the suggested alternatives.


For short inline annotations, the title attribute could be used.

In this example, two parts of a dialogue are annotated with footnote-like content using the title attribute.

<p> <b>Customer</b>: Hello! I wish to register a complaint. Hello. Miss?
<p> <b>Shopkeeper</b>: <span title="Colloquial pronunciation of 'What do you'"
>Watcha</span> mean, miss?
<p> <b>Customer</b>: Uh, I'm sorry, I have a cold. I wish to make a complaint.
<p> <b>Shopkeeper</b>: Sorry, <span title="This is, of course, a lie.">we're
closing for lunch</span>.

Unfortunately, relying on the title attribute is currently discouraged as many user agents do not expose the attribute in an accessible manner as required by this specification (e.g. requiring a pointing device such as a mouse to cause a tooltip to appear, which excludes keyboard-only users and touch-only users, such as anyone with a modern phone or tablet).

If the title attribute is used, CSS can be used to draw the reader's attention to the elements with the attribute.

For example, the following CSS places a dashed line below elements that have a title attribute.

[title] { border-bottom: thin dashed; }

For longer annotations, the a element should be used, pointing to an element later in the document. The convention is that the contents of the link be a number in square brackets.

In this example, a footnote in the dialogue links to a paragraph below the dialogue. The paragraph then reciprocally links back to the dialogue, allowing the user to return to the location of the footnote.

<p> Announcer: Number 16: The <i>hand</i>.
<p> Interviewer: Good evening. I have with me in the studio tonight
Mr Norman St John Polevaulter, who for the past few years has been
contradicting people. Mr Polevaulter, why <em>do</em> you
contradict people?
<p> Norman: I don't. <sup><a href="#fn1" id="r1">[1]</a></sup>
<p> Interviewer: You told me you did!
...
<section>
 <p id="fn1"><a href="#r1">[1]</a> This is, naturally, a lie,
 but paradoxically if it were true he could not say so without
 contradicting the interviewer and thus making it false.</p>
</section>

For side notes, longer annotations that apply to entire sections of the text rather than just specific words or sentences, the aside element should be used.

In this example, a sidebar is given after a dialogue, giving it some context.

<p> <span class="speaker">Customer</span>: I will not buy this record, it is scratched.
<p> <span class="speaker">Shopkeeper</span>: I'm sorry?
<p> <span class="speaker">Customer</span>: I will not buy this record, it is scratched.
<p> <span class="speaker">Shopkeeper</span>: No no no, this's'a tobacconist's.
<aside>
 <p>In 1970, the British Empire lay in ruins, and foreign
 nationalists frequented the streets — many of them Hungarians
 (not the streets — the foreign nationals). Sadly, Alexander
 Yalt has been publishing incompetently-written phrase books.
</aside>

For figures or tables, footnotes can be included in the relevant figcaption or caption element, or in surrounding prose.

In this example, a table has cells with footnotes that are given in prose. A figure element is used to give a single legend to the combination of the table and its footnotes.

<figure>
 <figcaption>Table 1. Alternative activities for knights.</figcaption>
 <table>
  <tr>
   <th> Activity
   <th> Location
   <th> Cost
  <tr>
   <td> Dance
   <td> Wherever possible
   <td> £0<sup><a href="#fn1">1</a></sup>
  <tr>
   <td> Routines, chorus scenes<sup><a href="#fn2">2</a></sup>
   <td> Undisclosed
   <td> Undisclosed
  <tr>
   <td> Dining<sup><a href="#fn3">3</a></sup>
   <td> Camelot
   <td> Cost of ham, jam, and spam<sup><a href="#fn4">4</a></sup>
 </table>
 <p id="fn1">1. Assumed.</p>
 <p id="fn2">2. Footwork impeccable.</p>
 <p id="fn3">3. Quality described as "well".</p>
 <p id="fn4">4. A lot.</p>
</figure>

4.15 Disabled elements

An element is said to be actually disabled if it is one of the following:

This definition is used to determine what elements can be focused and which elements match the :enabled and :disabled pseudo-classes.

4.16 Matching HTML elements using selectors and CSS

4.16.1 Case-sensitivity of the CSS 'attr()' function

The CSS Values and Units specification leaves the case-sensitivity of attribute names for the purpose of the 'attr()' function to be defined by the host language. [CSSVALUES]

When comparing the attribute name part of a CSS 'attr()' function to the names of namespace-less attributes on HTML elements in HTML documents, the name part of the CSS 'attr()' function must first be converted to ASCII lowercase. The same function when compared to other attributes must be compared according to its original case. In both cases, the comparison is case-sensitive.

This is the same as comparing the name part of a CSS attribute selector, specified in the next section.

4.16.2 Case-sensitivity of selectors

The Selectors specification leaves the case-sensitivity of element names, attribute names, and attribute values to be defined by the host language. [SELECTORS]

Selectors defines that ID and class selectors, when matched against elements in documents that are in quirks mode, will be matched in an ASCII case-insensitive manner.

When comparing a CSS element type selector to the names of HTML elements in HTML documents, the CSS element type selector must first be converted to ASCII lowercase. The same selector when compared to other elements must be compared according to its original case. In both cases, the comparison is case-sensitive.

When comparing the name part of a CSS attribute selector to the names of namespace-less attributes on HTML elements in HTML documents, the name part of the CSS attribute selector must first be converted to ASCII lowercase. The same selector when compared to other attributes must be compared according to its original case. In both cases, the comparison is case-sensitive.

Attribute selectors on an HTML element in an HTML document must treat the values of attributes with the following names as ASCII case-insensitive, with one exception as noted in the rendering section:

All other attribute values and everything else must be treated as entirely case-sensitive for the purposes of selector matching. This includes:

4.16.3 Pseudo-classes

There are a number of dynamic selectors that can be used with HTML. This section defines when these selectors match HTML elements. [SELECTORS] [CSSUI]

:defined

The :defined pseudo-class must match any element that is defined.

:link
:visited

All a elements that have an href attribute, all area elements that have an href attribute, and all link elements that have an href attribute, must match one of :link and :visited.

Other specifications might apply more specific rules regarding how these elements are to match these pseudo-classes, to mitigate some privacy concerns that apply with straightforward implementations of this requirement.

:active

The :active pseudo-class is defined to match an element while an element is being activated by the user.

To determine whether a particular element is being activated for the purposes of defining the :active pseudo-class only, an HTML user agent must use the first relevant entry in the following list.

If the element has a descendant that is currently matching the :active pseudo-class

The element is being activated.

If the element is the labeled control of a label element that is currently matching :active

The element is being activated.

If the element is a button element
If the element is an input element whose type attribute is in the Submit Button, Image Button, Reset Button, or Button state

The element is being activated if it is in a formal activation state and it is not disabled.

For example, if the user is using a keyboard to push a button element by pressing the space bar, the element would match this pseudo-class in between the time that the element received the keydown event and the time the element received the keyup event.

If the element is a menuitem element

The element is being activated if it is in a formal activation state and it does not have a disabled attribute.

If the element is an a element that has an href attribute
If the element is an area element that has an href attribute
If the element is a link element that has an href attribute
If the element has its tabindex focus flag set

The element is being activated if it is in a formal activation state.

If the element is being actively pointed at

The element is being activated.

An element is said to be in a formal activation state between the time the user begins to indicate an intent to trigger the element's activation behavior and either the time the user stops indicating an intent to trigger the element's activation behavior, or the time the element's activation behavior has finished running, which ever comes first.

An element is said to be being actively pointed at while the user indicates the element using a pointing device while that pointing device is in the "down" state (e.g. for a mouse, between the time the mouse button is pressed and the time it is depressed; for a finger in a multitouch environment, while the finger is touching the display surface).

:hover

The :hover pseudo-class is defined to match an element while the user designates an element with a pointing device. For the purposes of defining the :hover pseudo-class only, an HTML user agent must consider an element as being one that the user designates if it is:

Consider in particular a fragment such as:

<p> <label for=c> <input id=a> </label> <span id=b> <input id=c> </span> </p>

If the user designates the element with ID "a" with their pointing device, then the p element (and all its ancestors not shown in the snippet above), the label element, the element with ID "a", and the element with ID "c" will match the :hover pseudo-class. The element with ID "a" matches it from condition 1, the label and p elements match it because of condition 2 (one of their descendants is designated), and the element with ID "c" matches it through condition 3 (its label element matches :hover). However, the element with ID "b" does not match :hover: its descendant is not designated, even though it matches :hover.

:focus

For the purposes of the CSS :focus pseudo-class, an element has the focus when its top-level browsing context has the system focus, it is not itself a browsing context container, and it is one of the elements listed in the focus chain of the currently focused area of the top-level browsing context.

:target

For the purposes of the CSS :target pseudo-class, the Document's target elements are a list containing the Document's target element, if it is not null, or containing no elements, if it is. [SELECTORS]

:enabled

The :enabled pseudo-class must match any button, input, select, textarea, optgroup, option, menuitem, or fieldset element that is not actually disabled.

:disabled

The :disabled pseudo-class must match any element that is actually disabled.

:checked

The :checked pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:indeterminate

The :indeterminate pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:default

The :default pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:placeholder-shown

The :placeholder-shown pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:valid

The :valid pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:invalid

The :invalid pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:in-range

The :in-range pseudo-class must match all elements that are candidates for constraint validation, have range limitations, and that are neither suffering from an underflow nor suffering from an overflow.

:out-of-range

The :out-of-range pseudo-class must match all elements that are candidates for constraint validation, have range limitations, and that are either suffering from an underflow or suffering from an overflow.

:required

The :required pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:optional

The :optional pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories:

:read-only
:read-write

The :read-write pseudo-class must match any element falling into one of the following categories, which for the purposes of Selectors are thus considered user-alterable: [SELECTORS]

The :read-only pseudo-class must match all other HTML elements.

:dir(ltr)

The :dir(ltr) pseudo-class must match all elements whose directionality is 'ltr'.

:dir(rtl)

The :dir(rtl) pseudo-class must match all elements whose directionality is 'rtl'.

This specification does not define when an element matches the :lang() dynamic pseudo-class, as it is defined in sufficient detail in a language-agnostic fashion in the Selectors specification. [SELECTORS]