1. 4.12 Scripting
      1. 4.12.1 The script element
        1. 4.12.1.1 Processing model
        2. 4.12.1.2 Scripting languages
        3. 4.12.1.3 Restrictions for contents of script elements
        4. 4.12.1.4 Inline documentation for external scripts
        5. 4.12.1.5 Interaction of script elements and XSLT
      2. 4.12.2 The noscript element
      3. 4.12.3 The template element
        1. 4.12.3.1 Interaction of template elements with XSLT and XPath
      4. 4.12.4 The slot element

4.12 Scripting

Scripts allow authors to add interactivity to their documents.

Authors are encouraged to use declarative alternatives to scripting where possible, as declarative mechanisms are often more maintainable, and many users disable scripting.

For example, instead of using script to show or hide a section to show more details, the details element could be used.

Authors are also encouraged to make their applications degrade gracefully in the absence of scripting support.

For example, if an author provides a link in a table header to dynamically resort the table, the link could also be made to function without scripts by requesting the sorted table from the server.

4.12.1 The script element

Categories:
Metadata content.
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Script-supporting element.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Where script-supporting elements are expected.
Content model:
If there is no src attribute, depends on the value of the type attribute, but must match script content restrictions.
If there is a src attribute, the element must be either empty or contain only script documentation that also matches script content restrictions.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
src — Address of the resource
type — Type of embedded resource
nomodule — Prevents execution in user agents that support module scripts
charset — Character encoding of the external script resource
async — Execute script when available, without blocking
defer — Defer script execution
crossorigin — How the element handles crossorigin requests
nonce — Cryptographic nonce used in Content Security Policy checks [CSP]
integrity — Integrity metadata used in Subresource Integrity checks [SRI]
DOM interface:
[Exposed=Window,
 HTMLConstructor]
interface HTMLScriptElement : HTMLElement {
  [CEReactions] attribute USVString src;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString type;
  [CEReactions] attribute boolean noModule;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString charset;
  [CEReactions] attribute boolean async;
  [CEReactions] attribute boolean defer;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString? crossOrigin;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString text;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString nonce;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString integrity;

};

The script element allows authors to include dynamic script and data blocks in their documents. The element does not represent content for the user.

The type attribute allows customization of the type of script represented:

Support: es6-moduleChrome for Android NoneChrome 61+UC Browser for Android NoneiOS Safari 10.3+Firefox NoneIE NoneSamsung Internet NoneOpera Mini NoneSafari 10.1+Android Browser NoneOpera NoneEdge None

Source: caniuse.com

The requirement that data blocks must be denoted using a valid MIME type is in place to avoid potential future collisions. If this specification ever adds additional types of script, they will be triggered by setting the type attribute to something which is not a MIME type, like how the "module" value denotes module scripts. By using a valid MIME type now, you ensure that your data block will not ever be reinterpreted as a different script type, even in future user agents.

Classic scripts and module scripts may either be embedded inline or may be imported from an external file using the src attribute, which if specified gives the URL of the external script resource to use. If src is specified, it must be a valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces. The contents of inline script elements, or the external script resource, must conform with the requirements of the JavaScript specification's Script or Module productions, for classic scripts and module scripts respectively. [JAVASCRIPT]

When used to include data blocks, the data must be embedded inline, the format of the data must be given using the type attribute, and the contents of the script element must conform to the requirements defined for the format used. The src, charset, async, nomodule, defer, crossorigin, nonce and integrity attributes must not be specified.

The nomodule attribute is a boolean attribute that prevents a script from being executed in user agents that support module scripts. This allows selective execution of module scripts in modern user agents and classic scripts in older user agents, as shown below. The nomodule attribute must not be specified on module scripts (and will be ignored if it is).

The charset attribute gives the character encoding of the external script resource. The attribute must not be specified if the src attribute is not present, or if the script is not a classic script. (Module scripts are always interpreted as UTF-8.) If the attribute is set, its value must be an ASCII case-insensitive match for one of the labels of an encoding, and must specify the same encoding as the charset parameter of the Content-Type metadata of the external file, if any. [ENCODING]

The async and defer attributes are boolean attributes that indicate how the script should be evaluated. Classic scripts may specify defer or async; module scripts may specify async. The defer and async attributes must not be specified if the src attribute is not present.

Support: script-deferChrome for Android 59+Chrome 8+UC Browser for Android 11.4+iOS Safari 5.0+Firefox 3.5+IE 10+Samsung Internet 4+Opera Mini NoneSafari 5+Android Browser 3+Opera 15+Edge 12+

Source: caniuse.com

Support: script-asyncChrome for Android 59+Chrome 8+UC Browser for Android 11.4+iOS Safari 5.0+Firefox 3.6+IE 10+Samsung Internet 4+Opera Mini NoneSafari 5.1+Android Browser 3+Opera 15+Edge 12+

Source: caniuse.com

There are several possible modes that can be selected using these attributes, and depending on the script's type.

For classic scripts, if the async attribute is present, then the classic script will be fetched in parallel to parsing and evaluated as soon as it is available (potentially before parsing completes). If the async attribute is not present but the defer attribute is present, then the classic script will be fetched in parallel and evaluated when the page has finished parsing. If neither attribute is present, then the script is fetched and evaluated immediately, blocking parsing until these are both complete.

For module scripts, if the async attribute is present, then the module script and all its dependencies will be fetched in parallel to parsing, and the module script will be evaluated as soon as it is available (potentially before parsing completes). Otherwise, the module script and its dependencies will be fetched in parallel to parsing and evaluated when the page has finished parsing. (The defer attribute has no effect on module scripts.)

This is all summarized in the following schematic diagram:

With <script>, parsing is interrupted by fetching and execution. With <script defer>, fetching is parallel to parsing and execution takes place after all parsing has finished. And with <script async>, fetching is parallel to parsing but once it finishes parsing is interrupted to execute the script. The story for <script type="module"> is similar to <script defer>, but the dependencies will be fetched as well, and the story for <script type="module" async> is similar to <script async> with the extra dependency fetching.

The exact processing details for these attributes are, for mostly historical reasons, somewhat non-trivial, involving a number of aspects of HTML. The implementation requirements are therefore by necessity scattered throughout the specification. The algorithms below (in this section) describe the core of this processing, but these algorithms reference and are referenced by the parsing rules for script start and end tags in HTML, in foreign content, and in XML, the rules for the document.write() method, the handling of scripting, etc.

The defer attribute may be specified even if the async attribute is specified, to cause legacy Web browsers that only support defer (and not async) to fall back to the defer behavior instead of the blocking behavior that is the default.

The crossorigin attribute is a CORS settings attribute. For classic scripts, it controls whether error information will be exposed, when the script is obtained from other origins. For module scripts, it controls the credentials mode used for cross-origin requests.

Unlike classic scripts, module scripts require the use of the CORS protocol for cross-origin fetching.

The nonce attribute represents a cryptographic nonce ("number used once") which can be used by Content Security Policy to determine whether or not the script specified by an element will be executed. The value is text. [CSP]

The integrity attribute represents the integrity metadata for requests which this element is responsible for. The value is text. The integrity attribute must not be specified when embedding a module script or when the src attribute is not specified. [SRI]

Changing the src, type, charset, nomodule, async, defer, crossorigin, nonce and integrity attributes dynamically has no direct effect; these attributes are only used at specific times described below.

The IDL attributes src, type, charset, defer, integrity, and nonce, must each reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The crossOrigin IDL attribute must reflect the crossorigin content attribute, limited to only known values.

The noModule IDL attribute must reflect the nomodule content attribute.

The async IDL attribute controls whether the element will execute asynchronously or not. If the element's "non-blocking" flag is set, then, on getting, the async IDL attribute must return true, and on setting, the "non-blocking" flag must first be unset, and then the content attribute must be removed if the IDL attribute's new value is false, and must be set to the empty string if the IDL attribute's new value is true. If the element's "non-blocking" flag is not set, the IDL attribute must reflect the async content attribute.

script . text [ = value ]

Returns the child text content of the element.

Can be set, to replace the element's children with the given value.

The IDL attribute text must return the child text content of the script element. On setting, it must act the same way as the textContent IDL attribute.

When inserted using the document.write() method, script elements usually execute (typically blocking further script execution or HTML parsing). When inserted using the innerHTML and outerHTML attributes, they do not execute at all.

In this example, two script elements are used. One embeds an external classic script, and the other includes some data as a data block.

<script src="game-engine.js"></script>
<script type="text/x-game-map">
........U.........e
o............A....e
.....A.....AAA....e
.A..AAA...AAAAA...e
</script>

The data in this case might be used by the script to generate the map of a video game. The data doesn't have to be used that way, though; maybe the map data is actually embedded in other parts of the page's markup, and the data block here is just used by the site's search engine to help users who are looking for particular features in their game maps.

The following sample shows how a script element can be used to define a function that is then used by other parts of the document, as part of a classic script. It also shows how a script element can be used to invoke script while the document is being parsed, in this case to initialize the form's output.

<script>
 function calculate(form) {
   var price = 52000;
   if (form.elements.brakes.checked)
     price += 1000;
   if (form.elements.radio.checked)
     price += 2500;
   if (form.elements.turbo.checked)
     price += 5000;
   if (form.elements.sticker.checked)
     price += 250;
   form.elements.result.value = price;
 }
</script>
<form name="pricecalc" onsubmit="return false" onchange="calculate(this)">
 <fieldset>
  <legend>Work out the price of your car</legend>
  <p>Base cost: £52000.</p>
  <p>Select additional options:</p>
  <ul>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=brakes> Ceramic brakes (£1000)</label></li>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=radio> Satellite radio (£2500)</label></li>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=turbo> Turbo charger (£5000)</label></li>
   <li><label><input type=checkbox name=sticker> "XZ" sticker (£250)</label></li>
  </ul>
  <p>Total: £<output name=result></output></p>
 </fieldset>
 <script>
  calculate(document.forms.pricecalc);
 </script>
</form>

The following sample shows how a script element can be used to include an external module script.

<script type="module" src="app.js"></script>

This module, and all its dependencies (expressed through JavaScript import statements in the source file), will be fetched. Once the entire resulting module tree has been imported, and the document has finished parsing, the contents of app.js will be evaluated.

Additionally, if code from another script element in the same Window imports the module from app.js (e.g. via import "./app.js";), then the same module script created by the former script element will be imported.

This example shows how to include a module script for modern user agents, and a classic script for older user agents:

<script type="module" src="app.js"></script>
<script nomodule src="classic-app-bundle.js"></script>

In modern user agents that support module scripts, the script element with the nomodule attribute will be ignored, and the script element with a type of "module" will be fetched and evaluated (as a module script). Conversely, older user agents will ignore the script element with a type of "module", as that is an unknown script type for them — but they will have no problem fetching and evaluating the other script element (as a classic script), since they do not implement the nomodule attribute.

The following sample shows how a script element can be used to write an inline module script that performs a number of substitutions on the document's text, in order to make for a more interesting reading experience (e.g. on a news site): [XKCD1288]

<script type="module">
 import { walkAllTextNodeDescendants } from "./dom-utils.js";

 const substitutions = new Map([
   ["witnesses", "these dudes I know"]
   ["allegedly", "kinda probably"]
   ["new study", "Tumblr post"]
   ["rebuild", "avenge"]
   ["space", "spaaace"]
   ["Google glass", "Virtual Boy"]
   ["smartphone", "Pokédex"]
   ["electric", "atomic"]
   ["Senator", "Elf-Lord"]
   ["car", "cat"]
   ["election", "eating contest"]
   ["Congressional leaders", "river spirits"]
   ["homeland security", "Homestar Runner"]
   ["could not be reached for comment", "is guilty and everyone knows it"]
 ]);

 function substitute(textNode) {
   for (const [before, after] of substitutions.entries()) {
     textNode.data = textNode.data.replace(new RegExp(`\\b${before}\\b`, "ig"), after);
   }
 }

 walkAllTextNodeDescendants(document.body, substitute);
</script>

Some notable features gained by using a module script include the ability to import functions from other JavaScript modules, strict mode by default, and how top-level declarations do not introduce new properties onto the global object. Also note that no matter where this script element appears in the document, it will not be evaluated until both document parsing has complete and its dependency (dom-utils.js) has been fetched and evaluated.

4.12.1.1 Processing model

A script element has several associated pieces of state.

The first is a flag indicating whether or not the script block has been "already started". Initially, script elements must have this flag unset (script blocks, when created, are not "already started"). The cloning steps for script elements must set the "already started" flag on the copy if it is set on the element being cloned.

The second is a flag indicating whether the element was "parser-inserted". Initially, script elements must have this flag unset. It is set by the HTML parser and the XML parser on script elements they insert and affects the processing of those elements.

The third is a flag indicating whether the element will be "non-blocking". Initially, script elements must have this flag set. It is unset by the HTML parser and the XML parser on script elements they insert. In addition, whenever a script element whose "non-blocking" flag is set has an async content attribute added, the element's "non-blocking" flag must be unset.

The fourth is a flag indicating whether or not the script block is "ready to be parser-executed". Initially, script elements must have this flag unset (script blocks, when created, are not "ready to be parser-executed"). This flag is used only for elements that are also "parser-inserted", to let the parser know when to execute the script.

The fifth is the script's type, which is either "classic" or "module". It is determined when the script is prepared, based on the type attribute of the element at that time.

The sixth is a flag indicating whether or not the script is from an external file. It is determined when the script is prepared, based on the src attribute of the element at that time.

Finally, a script element has the script's script, which is a script resulting from preparing the element. This is set asynchronously after the classic script or module tree is fetched. Once it is set, either to a script in the case of success or to null in the case of failure, the fetching algorithms will note that the script is ready, which can trigger other actions. The user agent must delay the load event of the element's node document until the script is ready.


When a script element that is not marked as being "parser-inserted" experiences one of the events listed in the following list, the user agent must immediately prepare the script element:

To prepare a script, the user agent must act as follows:

  1. If the script element is marked as having "already started", then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

  2. If the element has its "parser-inserted" flag set, then set was-parser-inserted to true and unset the element's "parser-inserted" flag. Otherwise, set was-parser-inserted to false.

    This is done so that if parser-inserted script elements fail to run when the parser tries to run them, e.g. because they are empty or specify an unsupported scripting language, another script can later mutate them and cause them to run again.

  3. If was-parser-inserted is true and the element does not have an async attribute, then set the element's "non-blocking" flag to true.

    This is done so that if a parser-inserted script element fails to run when the parser tries to run it, but it is later executed after a script dynamically updates it, it will execute in a non-blocking fashion even if the async attribute isn't set.

  4. If the element has no src attribute, and its child nodes, if any, consist only of comment nodes and empty Text nodes, then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

  5. If the element is not connected, then abort these steps. The script is not executed.

  6. If either:

    ...let the script block's type string for this script element be "text/javascript".

    Otherwise, if the script element has a type attribute, let the script block's type string for this script element be the value of that attribute with leading and trailing ASCII whitespace stripped.

    Otherwise, the element has a non-empty language attribute; let the script block's type string for this script element be the concatenation of the string "text/" followed by the value of the language attribute.

    The language attribute is never conforming, and is always ignored if there is a type attribute present.

    Determine the script's type as follows:

  7. If was-parser-inserted is true, then flag the element as "parser-inserted" again, and set the element's "non-blocking" flag to false.

  8. Set the element's "already started" flag.

  9. If the element is flagged as "parser-inserted", but the element's node document is not the Document of the parser that created the element, then abort these steps.

  10. If scripting is disabled for the script element, then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

    The definition of scripting is disabled means that, amongst others, the following scripts will not execute: scripts in XMLHttpRequest's responseXML documents, scripts in DOMParser-created documents, scripts in documents created by XSLTProcessor's transformToDocument feature, and scripts that are first inserted by a script into a Document that was created using the createDocument() API. [XHR] [DOMPARSING] [XSLTP] [DOM]

  11. If the script element has a nomodule content attribute and the script's type is "classic", then abort these steps. The script is not executed.

    This means specifying nomodule on a module script has no effect; the algorithm continues onward.

  12. If the script element does not have a src content attribute, and the Should element's inline behavior be blocked by Content Security Policy? algorithm returns "Blocked" when executed upon the script element, "script", and the script element's child text content, then abort these steps. The script is not executed. [CSP]

  13. If the script element has an event attribute and a for attribute, and the script's type is "classic", then:

    1. Let for be the value of the for attribute.

    2. Let event be the value of the event attribute.

    3. Strip leading and trailing ASCII whitespace from event and for.

    4. If for is not an ASCII case-insensitive match for the string "window", then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

    5. If event is not an ASCII case-insensitive match for either the string "onload" or the string "onload()", then abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

  14. If the script element has a charset attribute, then let encoding be the result of getting an encoding from the value of the charset attribute.

    If the script element does not have a charset attribute, or if getting an encoding failed, let encoding be the same as the encoding of the script element's node document.

    If the script's type is "module", this encoding will be ignored.

  15. Let CORS setting be the current state of the element's crossorigin content attribute.

  16. Let module script credentials mode be determined by switching on CORS setting:

    No CORS
    "omit"
    Anonymous
    "same-origin"
    Use Credentials
    "include"
  17. If the script element has a nonce attribute, then let cryptographic nonce be that attribute's value.

    Otherwise, let cryptographic nonce be the empty string.

  18. If the script element has an integrity attribute, then let integrity metadata be that attribute's value.

    Otherwise, let integrity metadata be the empty string.

  19. Let parser state be "parser-inserted" if the script element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and "not parser-inserted" otherwise.

  20. Let settings be the element's node document's Window object's environment settings object.

  21. If the element has a src content attribute, then:

    1. Let src be the value of the element's src attribute.

    2. If src is the empty string, queue a task to fire an event named error at the element, and abort these steps.

    3. Set the element's from an external file flag.

    4. Parse src relative to the element's node document.

    5. If the previous step failed, queue a task to fire an event named error at the element, and abort these steps. Otherwise, let url be the resulting URL record.

    6. Switch on the script's type:

      "classic"

      Fetch a classic script given url, settings, cryptographic nonce, integrity metadata, parser state, CORS setting, and encoding.

      "module"

      Fetch a module script graph given url, settings, "script", cryptographic nonce, parser state, and module script credentials mode.

      When the chosen algorithm asynchronously completes, set the script's script to the result. At that time, the script is ready.

      For performance reasons, user agents may start fetching the classic script or module tree (as defined above) as soon as the src attribute is set, instead, in the hope that the element will be inserted into the document (and that the crossorigin attribute won't change value in the meantime). Either way, once the element is inserted into the document, the load must have started as described in this step. If the UA performs such prefetching, but the element is never inserted in the document, or the src attribute is dynamically changed, or the crossorigin attribute is dynamically changed, then the user agent will not execute the script so obtained, and the fetching process will have been effectively wasted.

  22. If the element does not have a src content attribute, run these substeps:

    1. Let source text be the value of the text IDL attribute.

    2. Switch on the script's type:

      "classic"
      1. Let script be the result of creating a classic script using source text and settings.

      2. Set the script's script to script.

      3. The script is ready.

      "module"
      1. Let base URL be the script element's node document's document base URL.

      2. Let script be the result of creating a module script using source text, settings, base URL, cryptographic nonce, parser state, and module script credentials mode.

      3. If this returns null, set the script's script to null and abort these substeps; the script is ready.

      4. Fetch the descendants of and instantiate script, given the destination "script". When this asynchronously completes, set the script's script to the result. At that time, the script is ready.

  23. Then, follow the first of the following options that describes the situation:

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute, and the element has a defer attribute, and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and the element does not have an async attribute
    If the script's type is "module", and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and the element does not have an async attribute

    Add the element to the end of the list of scripts that will execute when the document has finished parsing associated with the Document of the parser that created the element.

    When the script is ready, set the element's "ready to be parser-executed" flag. The parser will handle executing the script.

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute, and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and the element does not have an async attribute

    The element is the pending parsing-blocking script of the Document of the parser that created the element. (There can only be one such script per Document at a time.)

    When the script is ready, set the element's "ready to be parser-executed" flag. The parser will handle executing the script.

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute, and the element does not have an async attribute, and the element does not have the "non-blocking" flag set
    If the script's type is "module", and the element does not have an async attribute, and the element does not have the "non-blocking" flag set

    Add the element to the end of the list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible associated with the node document of the script element at the time the prepare a script algorithm started.

    When the script is ready, run the following steps:

    1. If the element is not now the first element in the list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible to which it was added above, then mark the element as ready but abort these steps without executing the script yet.

    2. Execution: Execute the script block corresponding to the first script element in this list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible.

    3. Remove the first element from this list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible.

    4. If this list of scripts that will execute in order as soon as possible is still not empty and the first entry has already been marked as ready, then jump back to the step labeled execution.

    If the script's type is "classic", and the element has a src attribute
    If the script's type is "module"

    The element must be added to the set of scripts that will execute as soon as possible of the node document of the script element at the time the prepare a script algorithm started.

    When the script is ready, execute the script block and then remove the element from the set of scripts that will execute as soon as possible.

    If the element does not have a src attribute, and the element has been flagged as "parser-inserted", and either the parser that created the script is an XML parser or it's an HTML parser whose script nesting level is not greater than one, and the Document of the HTML parser or XML parser that created the script element has a style sheet that is blocking scripts

    The element is the pending parsing-blocking script of the Document of the parser that created the element. (There can only be one such script per Document at a time.)

    Set the element's "ready to be parser-executed" flag. The parser will handle executing the script.

    Otherwise
    Immediately execute the script block, even if other scripts are already executing.

The pending parsing-blocking script of a Document is used by the Document's parser(s).

If a script element that blocks a parser gets moved to another Document before it would normally have stopped blocking that parser, it nonetheless continues blocking that parser until the condition that causes it to be blocking the parser no longer applies (e.g. if the script is a pending parsing-blocking script because there was a style sheet that is blocking scripts when it was parsed, but then the script is moved to another Document before the style sheet loads, the script still blocks the parser until the style sheets are all loaded, at which time the script executes and the parser is unblocked).

When the user agent is required to execute a script block, it must run the following steps.

  1. If the element is flagged as "parser-inserted", but the element's node document is not the Document of the parser that created the element, then abort these steps.

  2. If the script's script is null, fire an event named error at the element, and abort these steps.

  3. If the script is from an external file, or the script's type is "module", then increment the ignore-destructive-writes counter of the script element's node document. Let neutralized doc be that Document.

  4. Let old script element be the value to which the script element's node document's currentScript object was most recently set.

  5. Switch on the script's type:

    "classic"
    1. If the script element's root is not a shadow root, then set the script element's node document's currentScript attribute to the script element. Otherwise, set it to null.

      This does not use the in a document tree check, as the script element could have been removed from the document prior to execution, and in that scenario currentScript still needs to point to it.

    2. Run the classic script given by the script's script.

    "module"
    1. Set the script element's node document's currentScript attribute to null.

    2. Run the module script given by the script's script.

  6. Set the script element's node document's currentScript attribute to old script element.

  7. Decrement the ignore-destructive-writes counter of neutralized doc, if it was incremented in the earlier step.

  8. If the script is from an external file, then fire an event named load at the script element.

4.12.1.2 Scripting languages

A JavaScript MIME type is a MIME type string that is one of the following and refers to JavaScript: [JAVASCRIPT]

User agents must recognize all JavaScript MIME types.

User agents may support other MIME types for other languages, but must not support other MIME types for the languages in the list above. User agents are not required to support JavaScript. The processing model for languages other than JavaScript is outside the scope of this specification.

The following MIME types (with or without parameters) must not be interpreted as scripting languages:

These types are explicitly listed here because they are poorly-defined types that are nonetheless likely to be used as formats for data blocks, and it would be problematic if they were suddenly to be interpreted as script by a user agent.

When examining types to determine if they represent supported languages, user agents must not ignore MIME parameters. Types are to be compared including all parameters.

For example, types that include the charset parameter will not be recognized as referencing any of the scripting languages listed above.

4.12.1.3 Restrictions for contents of script elements

The easiest and safest way to avoid the rather strange restrictions described in this section is to always escape "<!--" as "<\!--", "<script" as "<\script", and "</script" as "<\/script" when these sequences appear in literals in scripts (e.g. in strings, regular expressions, or comments), and to avoid writing code that uses such constructs in expressions. Doing so avoids the pitfalls that the restrictions in this section are prone to triggering: namely, that, for historical reasons, parsing of script blocks in HTML is a strange and exotic practice that acts unintuitively in the face of these sequences.

The textContent of a script element must match the script production in the following ABNF, the character set for which is Unicode. [ABNF]

script        = outer *( comment-open inner comment-close outer )

outer         = < any string that doesn't contain a substring that matches not-in-outer >
not-in-outer  = comment-open
inner         = < any string that doesn't contain a substring that matches not-in-inner >
not-in-inner  = comment-close / script-open

comment-open  = "<!--"
comment-close = "-->"
script-open   = "<" s c r i p t tag-end

s             =  %x0053 ; U+0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S
s             =/ %x0073 ; U+0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S
c             =  %x0043 ; U+0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C
c             =/ %x0063 ; U+0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C
r             =  %x0052 ; U+0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R
r             =/ %x0072 ; U+0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R
i             =  %x0049 ; U+0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I
i             =/ %x0069 ; U+0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I
p             =  %x0050 ; U+0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P
p             =/ %x0070 ; U+0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P
t             =  %x0054 ; U+0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T
t             =/ %x0074 ; U+0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T

tag-end       =  %x0009 ; U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION (tab)
tag-end       =/ %x000A ; U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
tag-end       =/ %x000C ; U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
tag-end       =/ %x0020 ; U+0020 SPACE
tag-end       =/ %x002F ; U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
tag-end       =/ %x003E ; U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)

When a script element contains script documentation, there are further restrictions on the contents of the element, as described in the section below.

The following script illustrates this issue. Suppose you have a script that contains a string, as in:

var example = 'Consider this string: <!-- <script>';
console.log(example);

If one were to put this string directly in a script block, it would violate the restrictions above:

<script>
  var example = 'Consider this string: <!-- <script>';
  console.log(example);
</script>

The bigger problem, though, and the reason why it would violate those restrictions, is that actually the script would get parsed weirdly: the script block above is not terminated. That is, what looks like a "</script>" end tag in this snippet is actually still part of the script block. The script doesn't execute (since it's not terminated); if it somehow were to execute, as it might if the markup looked as follows, it would fail because the script (highlighted here) is not valid JavaScript:

<script>
  var example = 'Consider this string: <!-- <script>';
  console.log(example);
</script>
<!-- despite appearances, this is actually part of the script still! -->
<script>
 ... // this is the same script block still...
</script>

What is going on here is that for legacy reasons, "<!--" and "<script" strings in script elements in HTML need to be balanced in order for the parser to consider closing the block.

By escaping the problematic strings as mentioned at the top of this section, the problem is avoided entirely:

<script>
  var example = 'Consider this string: <\!-- <\script>';
  console.log(example);
</script>
<!-- this is just a comment between script blocks -->
<script>
 ... // this is a new script block
</script>

It is possible for these sequences to naturally occur in script expressions, as in the following examples:

if (x<!--y) { ... }
if ( player<script ) { ... }

In such cases the characters cannot be escaped, but the expressions can be rewritten so that the sequences don't occur, as in:

if (x < !--y) { ... }
if (!--y > x) { ... }
if (!(--y) > x) { ... }
if (player < script) { ... }
if (script > player) { ... }

Doing this also avoids a different pitfall as well: for related historical reasons, the string "<!--" in classic scripts is actually treated as a line comment start, just like "//".

4.12.1.4 Inline documentation for external scripts

If a script element's src attribute is specified, then the contents of the script element, if any, must be such that the value of the text IDL attribute, which is derived from the element's contents, matches the documentation production in the following ABNF, the character set for which is Unicode. [ABNF]

documentation = *( *( space / tab / comment ) [ line-comment ] newline )
comment       = slash star *( not-star / star not-slash ) 1*star slash
line-comment  = slash slash *not-newline

; characters
tab           = %x0009 ; U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION (tab)
newline       = %x000A ; U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
space         = %x0020 ; U+0020 SPACE
star          = %x002A ; U+002A ASTERISK (*)
slash         = %x002F ; U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
not-newline   = %x0000-0009 / %x000B-10FFFF
                ; a scalar value other than U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
not-star      = %x0000-0029 / %x002B-10FFFF
                ; a scalar value other than U+002A ASTERISK (*)
not-slash     = %x0000-002E / %x0030-10FFFF
                ; a scalar value other than U+002F SOLIDUS (/)

This corresponds to putting the contents of the element in JavaScript comments.

This requirement is in addition to the earlier restrictions on the syntax of contents of script elements.

This allows authors to include documentation, such as license information or API information, inside their documents while still referring to external script files. The syntax is constrained so that authors don't accidentally include what looks like valid script while also providing a src attribute.

<script src="cool-effects.js">
 // create new instances using:
 //    var e = new Effect();
 // start the effect using .play, stop using .stop:
 //    e.play();
 //    e.stop();
</script>
4.12.1.5 Interaction of script elements and XSLT

This section is non-normative.

This specification does not define how XSLT interacts with the script element. However, in the absence of another specification actually defining this, here are some guidelines for implementors, based on existing implementations:

The main distinction between the first two cases and the last case is that the first two operate on Documents and the last operates on a fragment.

4.12.2 The noscript element

Categories:
Metadata content.
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
In a head element of an HTML document, if there are no ancestor noscript elements.
Where phrasing content is expected in HTML documents, if there are no ancestor noscript elements.
Content model:
When scripting is disabled, in a head element: in any order, zero or more link elements, zero or more style elements, and zero or more meta elements.
When scripting is disabled, not in a head element: transparent, but there must be no noscript element descendants.
Otherwise: text that conforms to the requirements given in the prose.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
DOM interface:
Uses HTMLElement.

The noscript element represents nothing if scripting is enabled, and represents its children if scripting is disabled. It is used to present different markup to user agents that support scripting and those that don't support scripting, by affecting how the document is parsed.

When used in HTML documents, the allowed content model is as follows:

In a head element, if scripting is disabled for the noscript element

The noscript element must contain only link, style, and meta elements.

In a head element, if scripting is enabled for the noscript element

The noscript element must contain only text, except that invoking the HTML fragment parsing algorithm with the noscript element as the context element and the text contents as the input must result in a list of nodes that consists only of link, style, and meta elements that would be conforming if they were children of the noscript element, and no parse errors.

Outside of head elements, if scripting is disabled for the noscript element

The noscript element's content model is transparent, with the additional restriction that a noscript element must not have a noscript element as an ancestor (that is, noscript can't be nested).

Outside of head elements, if scripting is enabled for the noscript element

The noscript element must contain only text, except that the text must be such that running the following algorithm results in a conforming document with no noscript elements and no script elements, and such that no step in the algorithm throws an exception or causes an HTML parser to flag a parse error:

  1. Remove every script element from the document.
  2. Make a list of every noscript element in the document. For every noscript element in that list, perform the following steps:
    1. Let s be the child text content of the noscript element.
    2. Set the outerHTML attribute of the noscript element to the value of s. (This, as a side-effect, causes the noscript element to be removed from the document.) [DOMPARSING]

All these contortions are required because, for historical reasons, the noscript element is handled differently by the HTML parser based on whether scripting was enabled or not when the parser was invoked.

The noscript element must not be used in XML documents.

The noscript element is only effective in the HTML syntax, it has no effect in the XML syntax. This is because the way it works is by essentially "turning off" the parser when scripts are enabled, so that the contents of the element are treated as pure text and not as real elements. XML does not define a mechanism by which to do this.

The noscript element has no other requirements. In particular, children of the noscript element are not exempt from form submission, scripting, and so forth, even when scripting is enabled for the element.

In the following example, a noscript element is used to provide fallback for a script.

<form action="calcSquare.php">
 <p>
  <label for=x>Number</label>:
  <input id="x" name="x" type="number">
 </p>
 <script>
  var x = document.getElementById('x');
  var output = document.createElement('p');
  output.textContent = 'Type a number; it will be squared right then!';
  x.form.appendChild(output);
  x.form.onsubmit = function () { return false; }
  x.oninput = function () {
    var v = x.valueAsNumber;
    output.textContent = v + ' squared is ' + v * v;
  };
 </script>
 <noscript>
  <input type=submit value="Calculate Square">
 </noscript>
</form>

When script is disabled, a button appears to do the calculation on the server side. When script is enabled, the value is computed on-the-fly instead.

The noscript element is a blunt instrument. Sometimes, scripts might be enabled, but for some reason the page's script might fail. For this reason, it's generally better to avoid using noscript, and to instead design the script to change the page from being a scriptless page to a scripted page on the fly, as in the next example:

<form action="calcSquare.php">
 <p>
  <label for=x>Number</label>:
  <input id="x" name="x" type="number">
 </p>
 <input id="submit" type=submit value="Calculate Square">
 <script>
  var x = document.getElementById('x');
  var output = document.createElement('p');
  output.textContent = 'Type a number; it will be squared right then!';
  x.form.appendChild(output);
  x.form.onsubmit = function () { return false; }
  x.oninput = function () {
    var v = x.valueAsNumber;
    output.textContent = v + ' squared is ' + v * v;
  };
  var submit = document.getElementById('submit');
  submit.parentNode.removeChild(submit);
 </script>
</form>

The above technique is also useful in XML documents, since noscript is not allowed there.

4.12.3 The template element

Support: templateChrome for Android 59+Chrome 35+UC Browser for Android 11.4+iOS Safari 9.0+Firefox 22+IE NoneSamsung Internet 4+Opera Mini NoneSafari 9+Android Browser 4.4+Opera 22+Edge (limited) 13+

Source: caniuse.com

Categories:
Metadata content.
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Script-supporting element.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Where script-supporting elements are expected.
As a child of a colgroup element that doesn't have a span attribute.
Content model:
Nothing.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
DOM interface:
[Exposed=Window,
 HTMLConstructor]
interface HTMLTemplateElement : HTMLElement {
  readonly attribute DocumentFragment content;
};

The template element is used to declare fragments of HTML that can be cloned and inserted in the document by script.

In a rendering, the template element represents nothing.

The template contents of a template element are not children of the element itself. Instead, they are stored in a DocumentFragment associated with a different Document without a browsing context so as to avoid the template contents interfering with the main Document. (For example, this avoids form controls from being submitted, scripts from executing, and so forth.) The template contents have no conformance requirements.

For example, consider the following document:

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <title>Homework</title>
 <body>
  <template id="template"><p>Smile!</p></template>
  <script>
   let num = 3;
   const fragment = document.getElementById('template').content.cloneNode(true);
   while (num-- > 1) {
     fragment.firstChild.before(fragment.firstChild.cloneNode(true));
     fragment.firstChild.textContent += fragment.lastChild.textContent;
   }
   document.body.appendChild(fragment);
  </script>
</html>

The p element in the template is not a child of the template in the DOM; it is a child of the DocumentFragment returned by the template element's content IDL attribute.

If the script were to call appendChild() on the template element, that would add a child to the template element (as for any other element); however, doing so is a violation of the template element's content model.

template . content

Returns the template contents (a DocumentFragment).

Each template element has an associated DocumentFragment object that is its template contents. When a template element is created, the user agent must run the following steps to establish the template contents:

  1. Let doc be the template element's node document's appropriate template contents owner document.

  2. Create a DocumentFragment object whose node document is doc and host is the template element.

  3. Set the template element's template contents to the newly created DocumentFragment object.

A Document doc's appropriate template contents owner document is the Document returned by the following algorithm:

  1. If doc is not a Document created by this algorithm, then:

    1. If doc does not yet have an associated inert template document, then:

      1. Let new doc be a new Document (that does not have a browsing context). This is "a Document created by this algorithm" for the purposes of the step above.

      2. If doc is an HTML document, mark new doc as an HTML document also.

      3. Let doc's associated inert template document be new doc.

    2. Set doc to doc's associated inert template document.

    Each Document not created by this algorithm thus gets a single Document to act as its proxy for owning the template contents of all its template elements, so that they aren't in a browsing context and thus remain inert (e.g. scripts do not run). Meanwhile, template elements inside Document objects that are created by this algorithm just reuse the same Document owner for their contents.

  2. Return doc.

The adopting steps (with node and oldDocument as parameters) for template elements are the following:

  1. Let doc be node's node document's appropriate template contents owner document.

    node's node document is the Document object that node was just adopted into.

  2. Adopt node's template contents (a DocumentFragment object) into doc.

The content IDL attribute must return the template element's template contents.


The cloning steps for a template element node being cloned to a copy copy must run the following steps:

  1. If the clone children flag is not set in the calling clone algorithm, abort these steps.

  2. Let copied contents be the result of cloning all the children of node's template contents, with document set to copy's template contents's node document, and with the clone children flag set.

  3. Append copied contents to copy's template contents.

In this example, a script populates a table four-column with data from a data structure, using a template to provide the element structure instead of manually generating the structure from markup.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang='en'>
<title>Cat data</title>
<script>
 // Data is hard-coded here, but could come from the server
 var data = [
   { name: 'Pillar', color: 'Ticked Tabby', sex: 'Female (neutered)', legs: 3 },
   { name: 'Hedral', color: 'Tuxedo', sex: 'Male (neutered)', legs: 4 },
 ];
</script>
<table>
 <thead>
  <tr>
   <th>Name <th>Color <th>Sex <th>Legs
 <tbody>
  <template id="row">
   <tr><td><td><td><td>
  </template>
</table>
<script>
 var template = document.querySelector('#row');
 for (var i = 0; i < data.length; i += 1) {
   var cat = data[i];
   var clone = template.content.cloneNode(true);
   var cells = clone.querySelectorAll('td');
   cells[0].textContent = cat.name;
   cells[1].textContent = cat.color;
   cells[2].textContent = cat.sex;
   cells[3].textContent = cat.legs;
   template.parentNode.appendChild(clone);
 }
</script>

This example uses cloneNode() on the template's contents; it could equivalently have used document.importNode(), which does the same thing. The only difference between these two APIs is when the node document is updated: with cloneNode() it is updated when the nodes are appended with appendChild(), with document.importNode() it is updated when the nodes are cloned.

4.12.3.1 Interaction of template elements with XSLT and XPath

This section is non-normative.

This specification does not define how XSLT and XPath interact with the template element. However, in the absence of another specification actually defining this, here are some guidelines for implementors, which are intended to be consistent with other processing described in this specification:

4.12.4 The slot element

Categories:
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
name — Name of shadow tree slot
DOM interface:
[Exposed=Window,
 HTMLConstructor]
interface HTMLSlotElement : HTMLElement {
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString name;
  sequence<Node> assignedNodes(optional AssignedNodesOptions options);
};

dictionary AssignedNodesOptions {
  boolean flatten = false;
};

The slot element defines a slot. It is typically used in a shadow tree. A slot element represents its assigned nodes, if any, and its contents otherwise.

The name content attribute may contain any string value. It represents a slot's name.

The name attribute is used to assign slots to other elements: a slot element with a name attribute creates a named slot to which any element is assigned if that element has a slot attribute whose value matches that name attribute's value, and the slot element is a child of the shadow tree whose root's host has that corresponding slot attribute value.

slot . name
Can be used to get and set slot's name.
slot . assignedNodes()
Returns slot's assigned nodes.
slot . assignedNodes({ flatten: true })
Returns slot's assigned nodes, if any, and slot's children otherwise, and does the same for any slot elements encountered therein, recursively, until there are no slot elements left.

The name IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

The assignedNodes(options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If the value of options's flatten member is false, then return this element's assigned nodes.

  2. Return the result of finding flattened slotables with this element.